Sunday, January 31, 2010

Research design in social research

The term ’design’ means drawing an outline or planning or arranging details. It is a process of making decisions before the situation arises in which the decision has to be carried out. Research design is planning a strategy of conducting research. It plans as to what is to be observed, how it is to be observed, when/where it is to be observed, why it is to be observed, how to record observation, how to analyze/interpret observations and how to generalize. Research design is, thus, a detailed plan of how the goals of research will be achieved.
Functions of research design    
  • It provides blueprint 
  • It limits boundaries of research activity 
  • It enables investigation to anticipate potential problems 
Characteristics of research design
  • Researcher should know what is the time to collect data
  • Researchers should know what is the research situation, i.e., individuals, groups, communities, organizations will be of his interest and how are these varied situations to be interrelated ? 
  • Researcher know when does study involves chan

  Phases in research design
  • Specifying the problem/topic to be studied 
  • Framing research design 
  • Planning a sample 
  • Collecting the data 
  • Analyzing the data 
  • Preparing the report 

Advantages of designing research
  • Research can be conducted on scientific basis since precise guideline is provided by advance designing, carrying research in right direction and reducing inaccuracies 
  • Wastage of time and money is minimized 
  • Optimum reliability is achieved 
  • Designing helps in giving useful conclusions

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Basic sanitation and personal hygiene

The word 'sanitation' refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and waste water disposal. Proper sanitation is important to stay away from diseases at both personal and community levels.   

A number of diseases occur due to lack of proper sanitary facilities, especially among poor and rural people. By providing proper sanitary facilities to people, these diseases can be controlled and a number of deaths can be avoided. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact.

Presently 87 per cent of the world population has access to improved drinking water sources, with current trends suggesting that more than 90 per cent will do so by 2015. Lack of financial resources, lack of sustainability of water supply and sanitation services, poor hygiene behaviours, and inadequate sanitation in public places including hospitals, health centres and schools is the cause of numbers of diseases.
Lack of sanitation causes
  • water-borne diseases including viral hepatitis, typhoid, cholera, dysentery and other diseases that cause diarrhea  
  • Skin and eye infections (trachoma) spread easily  
  • Global burden of disease
  • Poor hygiene, inadequate quantities and quality of drinking water, and lack of sanitation facilities cause malnutrition
  • 4 billion cases of diarrhea per year cause 1.5 million deaths, mostly among children under five  
  • 6 million people are blind from trachoma and the population at risk is about 500 million  
  • 300 million people suffer from malaria 

By following sanitation tips a healthy environment can be assured  
  • Use adequate toilet and pay attention to proper handling and disposal of excrement
  • Always wash hands before and after eating, as well as after using toilets
  • Food should always be preserved without contact with contaminated water and ground
  • Never store water in open containers for long period of time. Water containers should be washed and if possible disinfected on regular basis
  • Avoid eating certain food items like un bottled drinks and ice cubes, unpacked milk, cream and ice cream, cold or insufficiently cooked meat, fish, egg dishes
  • Preservation of meat and milk products needs special attention, especially in regions where cold storage is not an option

Initiatives has taken by Government to maintain proper health & sanitation  
  1. The District Health Plan and Village Health Plan will be formulated  with the officials of Panchayati Raj, Total Sanitation Campaign, ICDS, and Drinking Water programmes   
  2. A community level worker “ASHA”  have selected from the community itself to work as a link worker at village level.     
  3. Departments of Panchayati Raj, ICDS, Total Sanitation Campaign and Drinking Water will be working to control sanitation   

Sunday, January 10, 2010

Tribal Development Approaches for their All Round Development

The tribal population of India constitutes around 8% of total population over 94,000 tribal villages. Tribals are mainly concentrated in Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, West Bengal, North-Eastern States and North-Western Himalayan States.

The small, marginal, fragmented, unirrigated and mono crop agriculture holdings and low productive livestock population do not offer adequate opportunitiesto to the tribals. Tribals in remote areas are still devoid of common infrastructure facilities of road and communication, health and education and safe drinking water, which do not allow  them to absorb technological and financial facilities provided by government.

So for their All Round Develpment,  In 1972, Tribal Development Directorate established for effective implementation of  Tribal Welfare Schemes.  In 1976 Tribal Development Commissionerate was established for All Round Development of Tribal. In 1984 separate Tribal Development Ministry was established to strengthen the Tribal Development Department, Directorate was merged into Commissionerate in 1992.

The comprehensive Tribal Development Approach involves the following

  • Orchard development (fruit/ plantation/herbal crops & forest plants) as the core componen
  • Soil conservation in the wadi
  • Water resources management (conservation and use)
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Human resource development (community development)
  • Women development - A special emphasis is given for involvement of women in all spheres ofthe programme.
  • The components include drudgery reduction measures, on-farm and non farm income generating activities and self help groups for inculcating thrift and credit habits.
  • Community Health
  • Micro-enterprises for landless people
  • Processing & marketing
  • Other auxillary components to dovetail with above activities.
Objectives of Tribal Development Approach
  • To promote sustainable participatory livelihood programmes
  • To take up promotional efforts such as capacity building, exposure visits, training, developing literature, sensitization programmes etc.
  • To implement sustainable livelihood programmes
  • To support promotional activities for micro-credit, promotion of SHGs, Income
  • Generating Activities for land-less, SC / ST communities and other weaker sections of the community
  • To support activities related to development of tribal market
  • To support other relevant activities as approved by NABARD
Participant Groups (PGs)
The core activity will be a family based programme and will be undertaken by the member of
tribal family. For better planning and management, the individual project participant
will come together as small groups of about 10 members each.

It is necessary for people to understand the relationship between their poverty and
the degraded environment in which they live in. They must also be provided with an equally
good, if not better, economic alternative.

empowerment, improvement in quality of life including health and women development,
in tribal predominant areas of the country through demonstration projects supported
through Non Government Organisations (NGOs)/ Community Based Organisations
(CBOs) / GOs.

Friday, January 1, 2010

Lung Cancer, Its symptoms and treatment

Cancer usually arises in a single cell, the cell's progress from normal to uncontrolled growth and sometimes spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. It usually grows and spreads more slowly than small cell lung cancer.

Three forms of NSCLC
  1. Adenocarcinomas are often found in an outer area of the lung.Squamous cell carcinomas are usually found in the center of the lung by an air tube (bronchus).
  2. Large cell carcinomas can occur in any part of the lung. 
  3. They tend to grow and spread faster than the other two types.
Smoking causes most cases of lung cancer. The risk depends upon the number of cigarettes smoked every day and for how long someone has smoked. Being around the smoke from others (secondhand smoke) also raises your risk for lung cancer. However, people who do not smoke and have never smoked have become sick with lung cancer.

Early lung cancer symptoms
  • Cough that doesn't go away
  • Coughing up blood
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Losing weight without trying 
 Other symptoms that may be due to NSCLC
  •  Weakness
  • Swallowing difficulty
  • Joint pain
  • Swelling of the fac
  • Bone pain or tenderness
  • Nail problems
  • Hoarseness or changing voice
  • Eyelid drooping
  • Shoulder pain or weakness
Tests that may be performed to diagnose lung cancer
  1. Chest x-ray
  2. CBC
  3. Sputum test to look for cancer cell
  4. Bone scan
  5. CT scan of the ches
  6. MRI of the ches
  7. Positron emission tomography (PET) sca
  8. Thoracentesis
In some cases, the health care provider may need to remove a piece of tissue from your lungs for examination under a microscope. This is called a biopsy. There are several ways to do this:

    * Bronchoscopy combined with biopsy
    * Pleural biopsy
    * CT scan directed needle biopsy
    * Mediastinoscopy with biopsy
    * Open lung biopsy
    * Endoscopic esophageal ultrasound (EUS) with biopsy

  1. Surgery is the often the first line of treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer that has not spread beyond nearby lymph nodes. The surgeon may remove:
  2. Some patients need chemotherapy. Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells and stop new ones from growing.
  1. If you smoke, stop smoking. It's never too early to quit. People who have smoked in the past can be at increased risk for lung cancer more than 20 years after quitting, although the risk drops significantly in the first year after quitting. There are benefits to quitting smoking, even for people who are well into middle age.
  2. Try to avoid secondhand smoke.
  3. Eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.
Routine screening for lung cancer is not recommended. Many studies have been done to look at the idea, but scientists have concluded that, at this time, screening does not help improve a person’s chance for a cure.