Sunday, April 4, 2010

Children with Autism

Autism is  likely that both genetics and environment play a role. Researchers have identified a number of genes associated with the disorder. Studies of people with autism have found irregularities in several regions of the brain.

Other studies suggest that people with autism have abnormal levels of serotonin or other neurotransmitters in the brain. These abnormalities suggest that autism could result from the disruption of normal brain development early in fetal development caused by defects in genes that control brain growth and that regulate how neurons communicate with each other.

Autism is a complex brain disorder that affects many aspects of child development, including how a kid talks, plays, and interacts.

Parents should continue to educate themselves about the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995, to be aware of what are their rights and benefits are as caregivers of autistic children.Primarily as a result of intense work by AFA with the Ministry of Health in the mid-1990's, the Government of India now recognizes autism as a disability.

Symptoms
    *  not play games
    * not point at objects to show interest (point at an airplane flying over)
    * not look at objects when another person points at them
    * have trouble relating to others or not have an interest in other people at all
    * avoid eye contact and want to be alone
    * have trouble understanding other people's feelings or talking about their own feelings
    * prefer not to be held or cuddled or might cuddle only when they want to
    * appear to be unaware when other people talk to them but respond to other sounds
    * be very interested in people, but not know how to talk, play, or relate to them
    * repeat or echo words or phrases said to them, or repeat words or phrases in place of normal language (echolalia)
    * have trouble expressing their needs using typical words or motions
    * repeat actions over and over again
    * have trouble adapting when a routine changes
    * have unusual reactions to the way things smell, taste, look, feel, or sound
    * lose skills they once had (for instance, stop saying words they were once using) 


Prevention
  • If you are a teacher/parents,  you should try to understand their language so that they understand yours
  • you should keep yourself from calling them some sweet names, or shortening their names
  • Never pressure the child, especially when he has failed to cover the given task correctly. Never shout at him
  • Try to avoid long, descriptive sentences. Be as specific as you can and make only fundamental points
  • You should always give the child an open, wide personal space for his movements so that he does not feel confined
  • Try to develop his communicative skills 

Treatment
  1. Antipsychotic drugs: This is the most widely studied group of drugs in autism. These drugs have been found to reduce hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, withdrawal, and aggression in some people with autism
  2. Antidepressants: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are one class of antidepressants that are commonly used to treat people with depression obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or anxiety. In some people with autism, these drugs reduce repetitive behaviors, irritability, tantrums, and aggression
  3.  Stimulants: Drugs used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may help some people with autism. These drugs work by increasing the person's ability to concentrate and pay attention and by reducing impulsivity and hyperactivity
  4. Other drugs: Other drugs may also help some people with autism. Anticonvulsants are frequently used to manage seizures in people with autism. Anticonvulsants may also be used to stabilize mood and/or behavior. Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists  are also sometimes used to manage hyperactivity and behavioral problems in some individuals with autism
      Recent estimates have placed the prevalence of autism in the U.S. at approximately 1 in 150 people, means 1% of the US children aged from 3 to 17. At India‚Äôs current population, there are more than 2 million autistic persons in the country.

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