Thursday, December 31, 2009

Micro-credit scheme for rural poor


"Micro-credit can means women have a chance at running their own businesses, which not only improves their economic circumstances but also their status in society,"

The study also evaluates the benefits and limitations of micro-credit as a resourceful means of enhancing women's economic activities in the labor market and eliminating poverty among market and rural women.

Micro-credit is making available of small amounts of credit to the poor, is seen as a vital tool for poverty alleviation and women's empowerment in developing societies.

Micro-credit is emerging as a powerful instrument for poverty alleviation in the new economy. In India, micro-Finance scene is dominated by Self Help Groups (SHGs). Micro-credit involves lending in groups (originally of five members) who were jointly responsible for the loan. It required repayment in small periodic installments, over a relatively short period. It lent not only to farmers but also to rural laborers, petty traders, and most importantly to women.

Banks linkage Programme, aimed at providing a cost effective mechanism for providing financial services to the 'unreached poor'. In the Indian context terms like "small and marginal farmers", " rural artisans" and "economically weaker sections" have been used to broadly define micro-finance customers.

The Finance Minister of India on Jun. 20, 2008, launched a micro credit scheme to provide loans at low interest rates to the slum dwellers. The scheme is supported by a slew of state-run banks and Life Insurance Corporation of India in collaboration with an NGO, ‘Asha’.

Micro-credit schemes and institutions which provide soft loans to women have become a critical tool in development programmes aiming to empower women. This study therefore investigates women's economic empowerment in relation to micro-credit schemes

The significance of the Grameen Bank and other micro credit experiments was that they countered this axiomatic belief by showing that even formal financial institutions could provide loans exclusively to the poor and still be assured of repayment. This is because they are based on the principle of "group lending" whereby loans are made to a group (of between 5 and 20 people) and therefore peer pressure acts as an effective mode of ensuring repayment.

Women borrow money from the micro-credit schemes to establish businesses, allowing them independence and the ability to provide for themselves and their families well into the future.

The schemes join those who have few or no opportunities into co-operatives, where they can borrow money and receive training.

The role of social mobilization in reducing poverty; working of community banking programmes at the village level is the efforts to create space for women to carry out credit and savings transactions.  The process of empowerment through the formation of women's groups and the improvement of women's lives through savings and credit activity.

Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Education system in India

Education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another. The right to education has been described as a basic human right since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education.

Central Government is responsible for major policy relating to higher education in the country. It provides grants to UGC and establishes central universities in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaration of Education Institutions as ‘Deemed to be University’ on the recommendation of the UGC.

The Indian Constitution is committed to the equality of citizens. The Directive Principles of the Government Policy is also to promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and in particular, of the SC/STs and Minorities. To achieve the objective of "Equality" with many facets, special provisions have been made in the constitution of India.

The Ministry of Human Resource Development, on 26 september, 1985, under 174th amendment to the Government of India rules 1961. Currently the Ministry has two departments namely

  1. Department of school education & literacy
  2. Department of higher education
Department of school education & literacy

  • Teacher Education
  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
  • Mid-Day Meal Scheme
  • Mahila Samakhya Scheme
  • National Council of Educational Research & Training
  • Central Board of Secondary Education
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan
  • Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti
  • National Institute of Open Schooline
  • National Foundation for Teachers' Welfare
  • Recognized Board of Secondary Education in India Schemes
  • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)
  • Girls Hostel
  • Model School
  • ICT Schools
  • Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary State
  • Incentives to Girls for Secondary Education
  • National Merit cum Means Scholarship
  • Financial Assistance for Appointment of language Teachers
  • Vocationalisation of Secondary Education
  • Adolescence Education Programme
Department of higher education

It is responsible for establishment of new institution, startup of new wings, streams and subjects in already established institutions. Education Act & Rules framed there under is the guiding law for the department.