Thursday, October 29, 2009

The Concept of Development & Displacement


Development is basically a normative term and carries varieties of meanings. Development generally implies some sort of advancement in positive direction. Though the progress was achieved in agricultural, economic and industrial front, development on the other side has pushed indigenous people and weaker sections of society into poverty and backwardness.

In the process of Displacement, it is the poor more particularly the tribal who bear its brunt most at all. The dislocated of the life of the poor is total stripped off their possession, they are compelled to move out side in search for livelihood to unknown destination.

Though millions of people have been displaced by various planned development schemes since Independence, no reliable data exists on the extent of displacement and rehabilitation. The estimate of total number of people displaced by planned development intervention from 1951-90 ranges from 110 lakh to 185 lakh, which has increased to 213 lakh in 2001.

According the national record 25.5 lakhs of people have been displaced by mines, 12.5 lakhs by industries, 164 lakhs by large and medium dams, 10 lakhs by park and wild life operation etc. The backward communities more particularly the tribal regions and tribal people are most affected in this process of development.

Principles relating to protection from Displacement

1. A specific decision shall be taken by the State authority empowered by law to order such measures
2. Adequate measures shall be taken to guarantee to those to be displaced full information on the reasons and procedures for their displacement and where applicable , on compensation and relocation
3. The free and informed consent of those to be displaced shall be sought
4. The authorities concerned shall endeavor to involve those affected, particularly women. In the planning and management of their relocation
5. Law enforcement measures, where required, shall be carried out by competent legal authorities
6. The right to an effective remedy, including the review of such decisions by appropriate judicial authorities, shall be respected.

Modification of the word Odisha & Odia, both in English and Hindi

In coming winter session, Indian Government have plan to pass a bill regarding the modification of word Odisha & Odia, both in writing and talking in hindi and english.

The Odisha Cabinet members made an agenda for those corrections last thursday. Till now the word Odisha has used as Orissa in english and Udisha in hindi. Like that, Oriya and Udia has used in stead of Odia. Let's hope for the best result.

Farmers death in Western Odisha

Kushadhwaja Majhi (38), a landless tribal of Tarbod village at Komna block in Nuapada district, had taken three acres of land on lease to cultivate paddy. Due to crop failure and lack of any governmental facility, Kushadhwaja hanged himself in his house on Sunday night.

He was not able to even arrange Rs 500 to open his account to facilitate payment of funds under Indira Awas Yojana allotted to him. He could get only 27 days of work payment within last one and a half years under NREGS.

This is the second case of farmer’s death in the past few days. One farmer died in Chikiti on Sunday and it was attributed to heart failure. At the same time, at Kusamdihi village in Jhankarpali Gram Panchayat of Rengali Block, Surendra Dhurua (35) tried to commit suicide on Monday by consuming poison. He is battling for his life at a private nursing home. He had taken loan of Rs 3,000 from a SHG and Rs 10,000. from private sector.

Thursday, October 22, 2009

Odisha govt. wakes up as farmers commit suicide

Another farmer commits suicide in Odisha. The farmer has been identified as Sunil Sutar from Murtuma-6 village under Umarkote police station area of Nawrangpur district. His body was recovered from a paddy field.

He had a debt of Rs 40,000 and could not repay the loan he had taken. According to Police crop failure due to irregular rainfall and loan burden is the cause of his suicide. Five farmers ended their life between October 4 to 21, this was the first such incident reported from southern part of the state.

The Odisha Government have decided to form a joint-committee of revenue and said agriculture departments will study the problems suffered by the farmers.

Wednesday, October 14, 2009

Risk factors associated with Alcohol....


Heavy drinking is associated with increased risk of strokes, liver disease, high blood pressure, infertility, diseases of the nervous system and strong physical dependence.


Withdrawal after very heavy use can involve delirium which can be fatal. Regular heavy drinking in pregnancy can cause lasting damage to the baby.




Different names

Ethanol, Ethyl Alcohol, Booze, alcohol brand names, beers, wines, spirits, liqueurs etc.


De-merits of Alcohol

  • Alcohol kills brain cells and delays thinking and reaction time
  • Alcohol is such a common factor in crime, domestic violence, and as an entry drug to more illicit drugs, it seems wise to simply avoid alcohol altogether
  • Infants born to mothers who drink, even in modest amounts, may be born with fetal alcohol syndrome, which often consists of growth retardation, unusual facial features, and mental retardation


Suggestions to accept

  • Keep your alcohol intake down if you want to lose or maintain your weight- alcohol is high in calories
  • Avoid drinks that are high in sugar e.g. sweet sherry, sweet wine and most liqueurs
  • Alcohol is not advised during pregnancy, it could harm your baby
  • Excessive intake of alcohol can be harmful to your health
  • A moderate amount of alcohol can be beneficial
  • Do not drink and drive

Sunday, October 11, 2009

Juvenile Deliquency a social problem



Delinquency exhibits a specific pattern of behavior. It involves wrong doing by a child or by a young person who is under age specified by the law of the place.

At present it has become one of the most important social problems which has attracted the attention of all serious thinking people.



It’s thus evident from the above observation that a child who commits an offence is called Juvenile delinquent. It includes begging, disorderly conducts, malicious mischief and ungovernable behavior.


Difference names for Juvenile delinquents

"Teddy boys” in England, the "nozem" in the Netherland, "tsotsis" in South Africa, the "bodgies" in Australia, "striliagy" in the USSR has named for delinquency in different countries.


Definition

According to Gillin & Gillin, “Sociologically either a criminal or juvenile delequent is one who is guilty of an act believed, by a group that has power to enforce its belief, to be injurious to society and therefore prohibited.”


Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

  • Social factors
  • Economic factors
  • Psychological factors


Social factors

The determining factors of child delinquency are social. As observed by Dr.M.J.Sethna, undesirable conditions at home, particularly quarrels between parents, desertion, intoxication, crowding in one room lodgings, lack of proper employment, lack of proper sanitation, cruelty of step parent, unwanted child, lack of families, lack of family affection and security, absence of loving mother causes delinquency.


Economic factors

Crime increase with economic depression and unemployment and that crime against property are more common in a capitalistic organization of society.


Psychological factors

The emotional disturbances and mental deviation created due to family dispute, family disorganization, parental negligence, bad environment and bad friend circle. Lack of affection and insecurity are also create mental conflict.


Main causes of delinquency

According to Healy and Bronner the main causes of delinquency are as follows

  1. Bad company
  2. Adolescent instability
  3. Mental conflict
  4. Early sex experience
  5. Emotional conflicts
  6. Social suggestibility
  7. Motion pictures
  8. Poor recreation
  9. Vocational dissatisfaction
  10. Physical condition


After necessary inquiry

When a Juvenile is after necessary inquiry satisfied that a Juvenile has committed an offence, it may

  • Allow the Juvenile to go home after advice or admonition
  • Direct the juvenile to be released on probation of good conduct and place under the care of parent/ guardian/ fit person
  • Order for the Juvenile to be sent to a special home
  • Order the juvenile to pay fine if she/he is over fourteen years age and earn money


Sunday, October 4, 2009

The Business of Prostitution and our girls/women


The Institution of prostitution is not of recent origin but has existed since many years and reflects the status of women in the society where it prevails. It is an institution based on the assumption that sex is an automatic right of man and purchable commodity. Women are, thereby, denied the right over bodies and are reduced to mere purchable objects.


Once a woman has been labeled a prostitute she is no longer seen as a complete human being with her own needs, desires, hopes, individuality, problems and limitations. Worse still, the children of the prostitutes are also stigmatized and discriminated against for no fault of theirs and what can only be called” an accident of birth”.


Causes of Prostitution

  1. Socio-cultural causes
  2. Economic causes
  3. Psychological causes
  4. Other ( Legal and Administrative causes)


Statistics of girls and women in the business

  • The average age of entry into the business: 14-16 years old
  • Percentage of girls/women who would like to leave the business - 87%
  • Percentage of girls/women who are or were homeless - 84%
  • Percentage of girls/women who have been raped - 82%
  • Percentage of girls/women who have been physically assaulted - 82%
  • Percentage of girls/women who have been threatened with a weapon - 78%
  • Percentage of girls/women who wish they had a safer place to live - 78
  • Percentage of girls/women who have been raped five times - 78
  • Percentage of girls/women who would like help with drug/alcohol addiction issues - Nearly 70%
  • Percentage of girls/women with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - approximately 70%
  • Percentage of girls/women who were sexually abused as a child - 65-95
  • Percentage of girls/women who were physically abused as a child - 49%


Socio-cultural causes

  • Ill-treatment by parents
  • Socio customs like devdasi system
  • Desertion by spouse
  • Family tradition or involvement of family members in prostitution
  • Widowhood and restrictions on widow remarriage
  • Social or personal reasons as low position of women in society, inability to arrange marriage, violation by incest
  • Bad company and neighborhood
  • Connivance of parents or husband
  • Deception
  • Lack of sex education and influence of media
  • Absence of recreational facilities


Economic causes

Economic distress and displacement


Psychological causes

  • Desire for physical pleasure and luxurious life
  • Increasing craze for money
  • Dejection
  • Love of fun


Other ( Legal and Administrative causes)

  • Kidnapping and abduction
  • Delay in rendering service
  • Urbanization and resulting migration
  • Ignorance
  • Illiteracy


The number of women in prostitution is increasing for various reasons and their desire to avoid identification. In fact, such mobility and secrecy in prostitution involves the use of certain public places like bus stands, railway station, street corners, parks, hotels, bars, health clubs etc. as pick up joints.


Shame on all those people, organizations who promote and glorify the idea of prostitution to our girls and young people!