Saturday, July 25, 2009

Role & Significance of NGO


NGO we means the non governmental organization, which is free from governmental control. These are the non profit making organizations, working for the social welfare.

Generally NGO means, a group of people representing from civil society back ground, thinking to stand united for common interest, specific problems of the people within the society.



Role of NGO

  1. Identify target area & target group
  2. Narrating statement of the problem
  3. Proper utilization of resources
  4. Fund raising for social welfare
  5. Work at the time of crisis
  6. Give support to the Government


Significance of NGO

  1. Improve the professional skills & techniques of workers
  2. Evaluate the work of the agency & improve upon methods & techniques used therein
  3. Create satisfaction & keep up the interest of the workers
  4. Facilitate supervision & training
  5. Solve the major problems
  6. Role in eradicating poverty
  7. Promote democracy & good governance
  8. Resolve social conflicts
  9. Protect Human Rights
  10. Participate with the Government in discussions dealing with social, economic, environmental and other problems
  11. Improve social & economic welfare
  12. Built healthy public law
  13. Promote sustainable human development
  14. Improve human condition

Sunday, July 12, 2009

Complaint against the TDP MLA,TV Rama Rao regarding alleged rape and murder of students of TVR College



A group of five girl students had met the state Home Minister P. Sabita Indra Reddy last week, along with their parents, and lodged a complaint against the MLA, TV Rama Rao over the rape case & sexual harassment.


While one student said she was raped by the MLA, another alleged that she had twice attempted to rape.


They alleged that the rape and the attempts to rape took place in March and April but they were feared to speak out.


After recording the statements of five girl students, who are from Karalla, the West Godavari district police has informed the AP State Human Rights Commission (APSHRC) about the evidence against the MLA.


The commission chairman B.Subhashan Reddy had sought a report from the district police, who were investigating the case before it was transferred to the CID. The commission has also directed the CID to submit a report about the case by August 3.


"We have registered a case under sections 376 (rape) and 302 (murder) of the Indian Penal Code," Deputy Superintendent of Police Venkatrami Reddy said.


Rao went on an indefinite fast here, along with his family members, seeking justice, claiming that he is innocent.

National Budget 2009-10 & the allocation for Social Sector



The main social challenges outlined by the Finance Minister, Mr. Pranab Mukherjee, while presenting his Budget speech for the year 2009-10 are as follows:

Allocation for Rural poor

1. System of direct transfer of subsidy to the farmers in due course.

2. Allocation under National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) increased by 144 per cent to Rs.39,100 crore in B.E. 2009-10 over B.E. 2008-09.

3. 25 kilo of rice and wheat per month at Rs.3 per kilo should be given to every family living below the poverty line in rural or urban areas under the National Food Security Act


Priority to Education

  • The overall Plan budget for higher education is to be increased by Rs.2,000 crore over Interim B.E. 2009-10
  • National Mission for Female Literacy to be launched with focus on minorities, SC, ST and other marginalized groups with the aim to reduce level of female illiteracy by half in three years.
  • Finance Minister has announced an increase of Rs. 2000 crore for the students from weaker section of the society.

Most developed countries in the world like the USA, UK and France spend around 6-7% of their national budgets for public education and health, while India allocates only 3% for education and around 1% for health.

the number of school children in India is more than 3 crores and most of these children were unable to afford the cost of education due to poverty and economic backwardness of their families. The Government did emphasize on the universalisation of education and made the following announcements in its National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP).


Objectives of NCMP:

(a) To ensure that no one is denied of education due to economic backwardness and poverty

(b) To make right to education a fundamental right for all children in the age group 6-14 years

(c) To universalize education through its flagship programmes such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal

(d) To support this increase in expenditure on education, and to increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition of an education over all central government taxes

(e) To progressively increase expenditure on education to around 6% GDP


Health Sector

Allocation under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) increased by Rs.2,057 crore over Interim B.E. 2009-10 of Rs.12,070 crore.

All BPL families to be covered under Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY). Allocation under RSBY increased by 40 per cent over previous allocation to Rs.350 crore in B.E. 2009-10.


The promise to universalise ICDS has been long-standing and while the increased allocation to Rs. 6,705 crores for the ICDS is the impact on the ground can take years to materialise.


Allocation for the Minorities

The latest Indian budget for 2009-10 financial year gives 1756.50 crores for minority development. Previous year it was 1013.83 crores. The proposal of giving Rs. 5000 crores to UGC for increasing the research fellowships with considerable share to minority.


Other Sustainable Development Programmes

  • Sustain a growth rate of at least 9 per cent per annum over an extended period of time
  • Ensure that Indian agriculture continues to grow at an annual rate of 4 per cent
  • Strengthen and improve the economic regulatory framework in the country
  • Expand the range and reach of social safety nets by providing direct assistance to vulnerable sections
  • Only 12 million jobs are to be created this fiscal year. India’s unemployment rate is around 7.2% of the labour force. Total labour is around 520 million with an increment of around 1.3% annually.
  • Reduce the proportion of people living below poverty line to less than half from current levels by 2014
  • Strengthen the delivery mechanism for primary health care facilities with a view to improve the preventive and curative health care in the country
  • Create a competitive, progressive and well regulated education system of global standards that meets the aspiration of all segments of the society
  • Increase the investment in infrastructure to more than 9 per cent of GDP by 2014
  • Support Indian industry to meet the challenge of global competition and sustain the growth momentum in exports
  • Move towards providing energy security by pursuing an Integrated Energy Policy
Source: Union Budget 2009-10

HIV positive students were expelled from school in Maharashtra



There have eight HIV positive students of Hasegaon village in Latur district of Maharashtra were expelled from school because of the strong opposition of the other students from that school & their parents.

Though the Education Officer D. Joshi has tried his level best to aware students & their family that HIV can’t be spread by talking or playing with kids, till now they are unable to reach into any conclusion.


The fear of disease has that much spread so strongly that, maximum 1140 students has boycotted from the school out of total 230 students.


Now the affected children are staying in an ashram in Hasegaon, run by an non-governmental organisation “Ahmi Sevak” for orphans and HIV-positive children.


Saturday, July 11, 2009

Village life in India

India have approximately 10,00,000 villages. The Census of India regards most settlements of fewer than 15,000. Each village is connected through a variety of crucial horizontal linkages with other villages and with urban areas both near and far.

Most villages are characterized by a multiplicity of economic, caste, kinship, occupational, and even religious groups linked vertically within each settlement.

Factionalism is a typical feature of village politics. The number of castes resident in a single village can vary widely, from one to more than forty. Typically, a village is dominated by one or a very few castes that essentially control the village land and on whose patronage members of weaker groups must rely.

The houses of Dalits are generally located in separate neighborhoods or on the outskirts of the nucleated settlement.The number of castes resident in a single village can vary widely, from one to more than forty.

Typically, a village is dominated by one or a very few castes that essentially control the village land. Villagers share use of common village facilities-the village pond (known in India as a tank), grazing grounds, temples and shrines, cremation grounds, schools, sitting spaces under large shade trees, wells, and wastelands.

A great many observances emphasize village unity. Typically, each village recognizes a deity deemed the village protector. Villagers unite in regular worship of this deity, considered essential to village prosperity.

Friday, July 10, 2009

Development in Psychology



Like the growth of an individual the development of an individual is essential. With the development of an individual mentally & physically one can live a better life.

Development of an organism starts from her/his family. When a organ born & grows up she/he learn many things from her/his family & the develop accordingly.



Meaning of Development

1. Development means become more mature & begin to exist.

2. Development means progress

3. It is a process which has continued before birth to death of a human being

4. Development depends upon maturation & learning

5. It is functional

6. Its universal & similar for all


Dimensions of Development

1. Cognitive development

2. Emotional development

3. Social development

4. Moral development


Cognitive development

Cognition means mental process of an individual. Act of acquire more knowledge is called cognition.

Process of Cognitive development:

1. Intelligence

2. Behaviour

3. Scheme(plan)

4. Equilibrium


Stages of Cognitive development

  1. Sensorimotor stage
  2. Preoperational stage
  3. Concrete operational stage
  4. Formal operational stage


Emotional development

Emotion related to one’s feelings, may be positive or negative in nature.

Stages of Emotional development:

1. Infant age

2. Toddlers

3. Preschool age

4. Children

5. Adolescents


Social development

Though acceptance of three processes one can adopt the society.

1. Accommodation

2. Assimilation

3. Socialisation


Moral development

The morality word is derived from the Latin word”Mario”, which means Manner. It’s based on

  1. Immoral behaviour
  2. Unmoral behaviour

Monday, July 6, 2009

'Social Audit' for the development of Local People



Social Audit acts as a source of continuous public vigilance and is an innovative feature of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.

The basic objective of social audit is to ensure public accountability in the implementation of projects, laws and policies. Social audit is a process through which the potential beneficiaries and other stakeholders of the project are involved in every stage, from planning to implementation of the process.


Complete transparency in the process. It is the responsibility of the elected representatives to answer questions and provide explanations about relevant action and inaction to concerned and affected people after which the findings of the social audit and other public investigations receive official sanction.


Appropriate actions are taken and reported back to the people along with information on action taken in response to complaints. In each Gram Panchayat, a particular day of the week is earmarked for processing work applications and related activities.


The process of social audit includes public vigilance and verification of registration of families, distribution of job cards, receipt of work applications and issue of dated receipts, preparation of project, payment of wages, evaluation of work, Till today social audit have been held in 1.77 lakh Gram Panchayats.