Thursday, June 25, 2009

Over Population in India “A Threat to Development”


India is the second most populous country in the world after China. But the rising population in India indicates that India will be the most populous country in the world and China will be the second in 2050.

Today the population of India has crossed one billion marks. According to 2001 Census, the population of India is 1,027,015,247, out of which 51.73%(531,277,078) were males and 48.27% (495,738,169) were females. According to July, 2008 India has reached 1,147,995,898. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world’s total population.

Reasons of over-population:

1. Birth rate
2. Death rate
3. Migration
4. Early marriage
5. Supristition & traditional believe
6. Poverty
7. Lack of awareness

Government Initiatives to control over-population:
1. Family planning camps
2. Educating women about family planning
3. Aware people about marriageable age
4. Educate mass about the small family norms
5. Propogate through mass media about the disadvantages of high population growth
6. Each Central/State/District and local area should be made responsible and accountable to control over population

Saturday, June 20, 2009

Skills that you should be learn for Success


True Success is simply the realization and obtainment of a worthy ideal or result that your heart is deeply connected to it & what you desired, results fruitfully in your life, business, wealth, or a worthy ideal.

Ask yourself these three simple questions

1. What things do you love doing?

2. What were you doing last time you felt really good about yourself and about life?

3. What things give you energy?


Fifteen ways to resolve conflict

1. Seek to understand the problem

2. Listen to each other – take turns to speak

3. Listen to the other person’s point of view

4. Calm down first – manage your emotions

5. Clearly and calmly state your opinion

6. Be honest about your feelings

7. Always put yourself in the other person’s shoes

8. Compromise on some things

9. Seek a win

10. Ask some to help you (Teacher or Counsellor)

11. If people offer their wisdom as you go through life, accept it gratefully

12. You can learn much from those who have gone before you

13. Never be afraid or hesitant to step off the accepted path

14. Go ahead in your own direction if your heart tells you that it’s the right way for you

15. Always believe that you will ultimately succeed at whatever you do, and never forget the value of persistence, discipline, and determination


It is your life and only you can take charge of your own path. You need to discover what you truly want from life, and sometimes this is hard to determine! Start by finding out what makes you happy and what you love doing.


Action plan to live your life to the full, each and every day

1. Your Life holds unlimited potential

2 .You have the ability to attain whatever you seek

3. Within you is every potential you can imagine

4. Always aim higher than you believe you can reach

5. So often, you’ll discover that when your talents

6. Are set free by your imagination

7. You can achieve any goal

It is your life and only you can take charge of your own path. You need to discover what you truly want from life, and sometimes this is hard to determine! Start by finding out what makes you happy and what you love doing.


The skills that we should be learn for success in this new world in which we live

* Predicting consequences

* Reading for deep understanding

* Distinguishing truth from fiction

* Empathy

* Creativity

* Communicating clearly

* Learning how to learn

* Healthy Living (which isn't fear and anxiety-based)

* Valuing Yourself

* Living meaningfully--as in having a purpose in life



Monday, June 15, 2009

Tribal Education & their Primitive Culture


India is a unit of different races & tribes. The tribals claim to be the original inhabitats of India. So they are known as Adivashi or Adima Jati. They had non formal system of education. They had their own system of education & culture.



Dimensions of tribal education:

1. Post figurative education
2. Con figurative system
3. Dialect

Post figurative education:
post figurative education is limited within the family. That types of education was mostly among the tribes. The parents learned their children by drawing picture. They expressed & exchanged their view through figure, symbols.

Con figurative system:
The con figurative system isn't limited to the family, within the parents & children but its scope was very wide. They exchange their views & ideas with their peers, relatives & others by the help of figures & symbols. It's one type of non-formal education.

Dialect:
Dialect means what a person explain by use voice. Dialect has used by the parents & children. Its one types of non-formal education & its continue hierarchically. Dialects are different from speech & language. Its a component of languages. It includes sound, postures & gestures of the tribals. It's a types of pronunciation.

The factors which influence the tribals to accept & remain in their own non-formal education:
1. Habitat
2. Custom
3. Culture

Besides these there have some other factors which influence them to follow their non-formal education are:

1. The tribal had primitive & indigenous culture
2. Way of economic pursues taught by the parents
3. Feudal system
4. Rural Technology
5. Tribal education is unwritten in nature

1. The tribal had primitive & indigenous culture:
The tribals had primitive & indigenous culture & habits that includes superstition, folk practices & very primitive rituals & rites. This prevented them from the rest of the world & they preferred to be isolated. That's why they had very little exposer as a result there have a non-formal system of education.

2. Way of economic pursues taught by the parents:
The parents taught their children about economic pursues & made them skilled in that particular, traditional occupation. So they practice "craft" from generation to generation & it prevented them to follow a formal system. It's called rural antigens, who have some traditional skill without having any education by which they earn money for livelihood. They get skill from their parents & for fathers, so they aren't think of any formal system of education.

3. Feudal system:
Feudal system means a king having some subjects. The feudal lords had the evils intention of exploitation & that's why they had no intention of promoting tribal education in a formal manner. So feudalism is also a barrier to tribal education.

4. Rural Technology
There have two types of technology as:
1. Simple technology
2. Sophisticated technology

Simple technology
The activities of tribal people & their economic pursues like work in small scale industry as crafter, collector of forest products, hunter etc.are simple way to earn money so they want to practice these for their livelihood.

Sophisticated technology
They are very Innocent, their exposer is limited & that's why they remain (indifferent) aloof from modern technological practices & training as a result they don't prefer formal types of education.

5.Tribal education is unwritten in nature:
Tribal education suffered a lot because of its unwritten nature. In tribals nothing was recorded about the tribal habitats, culture, language, so they have no idea about formal system of education. This unwritten nature prevented the tribals to follow a systematic pattern of education.

Their own written dialects, habits & experiences were simply their non-formal system of education. Their traditional institutional institutions are learning centres which has provided them opportunities to learn different traditional skill for their living & other practices.

Tuesday, June 9, 2009

Social Legislation in a Welfare State



Social Legislation generally means ‘The Laws' designed to improve and protect the economic & social position of those group in society which because of age, race, sex, physical or mental disability or lack of economic power, can’t achieve healthful standards of living for themselves.



Need of Social Legislation:

1. Social Legislation is for social change

2. Social Legislation is leads to social welfare

3. Social Legislation set-up for the development of the society


Social Legislation in a Welfare State:

State Intervention is required to safe guard mutual rights & duties. Social Legislation especially in a adjustable instrument, stratifying the requirement of an ever changing society.


Definition:

According to Oliver Wendell, “Legislation of today is to meet the social needs of yesterday.”


Nature of Legislation in Welfare State:

  1. Women welfare
  2. Child welfare
  3. Schedule caste development
  4. Welfare of OBC
  5. Welfare of disable person
  6. Labour welfare
  7. Housing welfare


Women welfare:

The total workforce in our country is about 314 million, out of which women constitute 90 million & man 224 million. To maintain the dignity of women, equality of sexes & establishment of special justice, women welfare programmes such as Janani Suraksha Yojana, MCH, Maternity Benefit Leave, ICDS, formation of SHG, micro finance are some of the keys which has provided welfare majors to the women.

Others as Hindu marriage act-1955, Hindu Succession Act-1956, Women Trafficking Act-1956, Dowry Prohibition Act-1961, Women Education Equality Act-1956, Women Empowerment Act-1993 etc. are protect the rights of women.


Child welfare:

After the formation of legislation, child labour act-1986 was came into force. According to which no child below the age of 14 years should work in any hazardous place. In July 2006, the Indian Govt. brought an amendment according to which, “no child below the age of 14 should work in any hazardous place or in dhaba, hotels as servant or work as a domestic servant. ”The Juvenile Justice Act, 2001 said that if a child below the age of 14 saw any deviant behavior shouldn’t be punished & treat friendly behavior in adjudication.”


Schedule Caste development:

The Ministry of social justice & empowerment is the nodal ministry that overseas the interest of the schedule caste. Besides this the national commission has been set-up to look-after the interest of SCs & STs under article 338.

To achieve their social development to protect them from exploitation, the protection of Civil Rights Act, 1995, the SC & ST Act 1989 were enacted.

Article 330 for reservation of SC & ST, Article 15 for abolition of untouchablity are ensured by the legislation.


Welfare of OBC :

In 1990, after a long deliberation of the recommendation of Mandal Commission, it’s decided for reservation of 27% for OBC in Civil Services.

In 2008, Budget Session the OBC Reservation Bill was remaining as a main topic to discuss.

The National Commission for OBC was set-up on 14th August 1993, which is working for the development & betterment of the Other Backward Classes. In 2008, under Budget Planning, Government planned for 27% of reservation for OBC in higher education with the amount of 875 crore.


Welfare of disable person:

The Comprehensive Law namely the equal opportunity, protection of rights & full participation act-1995 has been enacted & enforced in February 1996.

The Mental Health Act 1987 & Lapers Act 1898 are working for the prevention & promotional aspects of the disable persons.

The rehabilitation such as education, employment & vocational training, Grant in Aid should be given to the people with disable.


Labour welfare:

The International Labour Organization (ILO) was sett-up in 1919, as a part of the League of Nations for the promotion of Universal Peace through social justice.

The study group of ‘National Commission’ on Labour on 2002, has brought out the new changes and welfare majors for women, children & self employed workers who work as labourer.

The labour welfare funds/schemes providing medical, educational, recreational & other family welfare benefits, who are working in iron ore, mica, chrome ore.

The labour welfare policies as equal pay for equal work, creche system for working women, maternity leave, security & care facilities for labourer are some of the welfare majors.


Housing welfare:

To provide houses to workers, employees to lay-down obligations on the employers & low income group people through various acts, the central government provides loans & subsidies to State Govt., individuals & employees.

The welfare fund act, Indira Awas Yojana, Jawahar Homes through Jawahar Rojgar Yojana, Short-stay Homes for destitute women, the person effected with communicable diseases as Leprosy, TB etc.are some of the housing welfare majors provided by the Government.


Thursday, June 4, 2009

Celebration of World Environment Day "A Need to protect the world from Global Worming"


World Environment Day (WED) was hosted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1972. WED is hosted every year by a different city and commemorated with an international exposition through the week of June 5 in more than 100 countries.

The United Nation's Environment Programme (UNEP), also created in 1972, uses WED to stimulate awareness about environment and enhance.This year, World Environment Day 2009 is being hosted by Mexico with the theme "Your Planet Needs You-Unite to Combat Climate Change". It aims sustainable development of our economies and communities and environmental change

According to Ban Ki Moon, "The world needs focused on investing in renewable sources of energy, eco-friendly infrastructure and energy efficiency, this will not only create jobs and spur recovery but also help tackle global warming."

Issues related to Environment Protection
1.
All the UN member countries have accepted that the negotiations to manage climate change & its impacts should be held under the aegis of UNFCCC (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) to protect the earth from Global Worming. The protocol's first phase ends in 2012 & more than 180 countries that are party to the Convention.

2.
Today more than 2 billion people around the world lack access to basic sanitation services due to de-forestation.

3.
UNO estimated 42,000 people die every week from diseases related to low water quality and an absence of adequate sanitation, according to Mr. Moon, the UN Secretary General. He have a hope that, all Nations must be taken proper initiatives and follow rule & regulations to protect the Environment & the World from Global Worming.

The UN chief also expressed his hope that governments across the world would reach a new deal on climate change in the meeting which will take place in Copenhagen in December.