Sunday, May 31, 2009

World No Tobacco Day 2009


In the twentieth century tobacco epidemic killed 100 Million people worldwide. Tobacco use is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death in the whole world.

Smoking is the second leading cause of Cancer death and compared to nonsmokers smokers are developing 13 times more lung cancer. Smoking causes more than 90% of lung cancer deaths among man & 80% among women. Over 90% of patients with oral cancer use tobacco by either smoking or chewing it.

Many hazardous substances like Nicotine, Tar, Volatile aldehydes, nitrosamines have been identified in tobacco. More than 4000 hazardous chemicals are also used in tobacco, which is the main cause of Lung Cancer Death among people.

Tobacco problem is more in India as on date 142 million(50%) man & 72 million (10%) women use tobacco. India is rated 3rd largest producer of raw tobacco and 6 million people are engaged in tobacco production. There have also 70 cigarette & 1,000 gutkha and paan masala manufacturing units we found in India.

31st May 2009 as “World No Tobacco Day 2009” is a prayas of UNO to aware people about the negative side of using tobacco. It’s through picture warnings Govt. make a prayas to make people aware of the health risks of tobacco use and convincing them to quit. More and more countries are fighting back against the epidemic of tobacco, having a hope to reduce the ill factors.

Need of Emotional Intelligence to make a better life


Emotional Intelligence is all about the capacity to reason about emotions and of emotions to enhance thinking.

It includes the abilities to accurately perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought to understand emotions and emotional knowledge and to reflectively regulate emotions and emotional knowledge and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

Daniel Goleman, who popularized the concept of Emotional Intelligence, is of the opinion that Intelligent Quotient (IQ) accounts for 20% success in a person’s life, whereas most of the remaining 80% factors are based on Emotional Intelligence (EI). It can be improved throughout life but IQ remains constant after a particular age group.

Emotional Intelligence influences day-to-day problem solving behavior in schools, community centers, business houses and organizations. At individual level, it predicts communication skills, mortality, leadership, problem solving and aesthetics.

Emotions reflect relationships in cognition like sadness, which may indicate disappointment with self, the recognition of this relational existence of emotions led towards the progress of the contemporary view of intelligence that emotions and cognition can work hand in hand.

Emotional intelligence transpires that people, who manage their own feelings well and deal effectively with others, are more likely to be content in their lives, and are, therefore, more likely to retain in their lives.

Intelligence is more appropriately understood as the interface of cognitive and emotional characteristics. From all research it appears that higher emotional intelligence is related to many aspects o9f life success particularly if the child is brought up in an emotionally intelligent environment.

From a research it had founded that girls are having better emotional intelligence in comparison to boys and rural population is having more emotional intelligence in comparison to urban population.

Monday, May 25, 2009

Schizophrenia 'a mental illness' killed thousands people every year


Schizophrenia is a group of mental illness and not one single disease common mental disorder is a group of conditions not fulfilling the criteria for serious mental illness comprising depression, panic, sumatization and commonly mixed syndrome with symptoms of each. Bleuler in 1911 introduced the term Schizophrenia to identify the same illness.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder which accounts for the maximum suffering for those affected and their families.

Symptoms
1. Breakdown of perceptual filtering
2. Disorganisation of thought process
3. Emotion distortion and feeling of panic
4. Delusions and hallucinations
5. With drawl from reality

Types of treatment
1. The ultimate goal of treatment of people with Schizophrenia is the productive reintegration into the main stream of society, it can be provided at the community level through medication through relief symptoms and prevent relapse.

2. Through education and psycho-social intervention it's possible to assist the patient as well as the families to cope with mental illness art

3. Through rehabilitation and assist the to cope up with community at regain occupational and functioning

3. The incidence of Schizophrenia is due to social factors, which family is appears to be a key elements

In India there are Five Millions of people with Schizophrenia with varying degrees of impact on millions of people.

Sunday, May 24, 2009

Odisha now prepare to cope up with cyclone


As monsoon is expected to hit Odisha early, Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik has reviewed the preparedness of different departments of his government to cope with possible flood situation in the state.

Patnaik directed all the District Collectors to hold district level natural calamity committee meeting by May 25. The District Collectors were also asked to speed up the restoration work of the damaged roads and river.

Patnaik directed the Food Supplied and Consumer Welfare department to stock relief materials for three months in the flood-prone gram panchayats. He also asked the authorities to have stock of diesel and kerosene,adequate stock of ORS packets andAll the district headquarters hospitals informed to ready with their action plan to deal with floods.

Thursday, May 21, 2009

Characteristics of Traditional, Modern & Post-modern Society

Indian society was described as traditional society till the first quarter of the twentieth century. Though the British Government did industrialization and introduced several economic and social changes but it was not interested in raising the quality of life of the people. Traditionalism and modernity are two extremes but accepting traditionalism doesn’t mean completely rejecting modernization. It may simply mean regulating the forces of modernization.

So Simply, Society means a group of people having different families living in a specific social boundary may be with traditonal or modern values. Society is also consisting of numbers of people having differences in their custom, tradition, ethics but people are forced to follow some societal role.

Characteristics of Traditional Society
1. The status of a person is determined by birth & is fixed
2. Individual's behaviour is governed by custom & ways of behaviour of people vary only slightly from generation to generation.
3. Social organization is based on hierarchy
4. Individual identifies herself/himself with primary groups and kinship relations predominate in interaction
5. In individual is given more importance in social relations than his position
6. In individual identifies himself with primary groups and kinship relations predominate in interaction
7. People are conservative
8. Economy is simple and productively low
9. Mythical thought predominates in society

Characteristics of Modern society
1. Individual's status in society is determined by her/his own potentialities & capabilities
2. A person’s behaviour is governed by law than by custom
3. Social structure is based on equality
4. Secondary relations predominate over primary relations
5. Individual’s position in society is achieved & it’s given more importance in social relations
6. People are innovative
7. Economy is based on complex technology
8. Rational thought predominates in society

Characteristics of Post modern society
1. Social character is merged into constitutional profile
2. Agrarian life has converted to mechanical life
3. Natural environment became polluted
4. Value base society automatically converted with principle driven society

Tuesday, May 12, 2009

Women Trafficking in India


Women and children were becoming vulnerable to trafficking as they were unable to survive with dignity because of lack of livelihood options.

Trafficking has been an area of concern since the early 20th century but it especially attracted attention during the 1980s. More recently, there has been a widening of its focus. However, this was not accompanied by an independent and sustained mass movement, against trafficking in the country.

Impact of Trafficking
In the absence of awareness of human rights, the economically and socially deprived people at the grassroots have become easy prey to the trafficking trade. Migrating populations have become most vulnerable to exploitation by traffickers. It's mainly the women, children and poor people from rural area who are the victims of trafficking. Likewise the further impact spoil ones life & polluted the society.

Impact on Individual
Trafficked persons are reportedly traumatized by their experiences. Depression and suicidal thoughts are commonly reported. The mental and emotional state of the survivors may include malevolence, helplessness and withdrawal, disassociation, self-blame and identification with the aggressor, whereby the victims convince themselves that their experiences had to happen instead of viewing them as traumatic.

Some of the psychiatric disorders among survivors of trafficking are listed as post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorder, dissociative disorders, psychotic disorders and eating. Girls are made to bear the responsibility of upholding the family honour through their sexual purity/chastity. If they are trafficked into CSE (commercial sexual exploitation), they face additional stress because of the prevalent morality.

Imact on Society
The crime of trafficking involves the violation of a whole gamut of laws and human rights. It becomes a threat to society because traffickers operate across borders with impunity, with the growing involvement of organized criminals and by generally undermining the rule of law. Trafficking ‘threatens the very fabric of society’ because it involves not only criminals but also law enforcers.

Characteristics of traffickers
Traffickers are usually young men and middle-aged women who are significantly older than the young women/children they recruit. They are natives and agents who travel back and forth from home countries/regions to receiving regions and generally have links with the villages to which the victims belong. Procurers are reportedly substance abusers or gamblers. Many of the traffickers are older women, who are either former prostitutes or are themselves in forced prostitution, trying to escape abuse and bondage by providing a substitute. Often, these agents speak several languages. They may have multiple roles.

Trafficking Rate in India
The population of women and children in sex work in India is stated to be between 2 million. Of these, 30 per cent are 20 years of age. Nearly 15 per cent began sex work when they were below 15, and 25 per cent entered between 15 and 18 years. A news item published in Statesman states that roughly 2 million children are abused and forced into prostitution every year in India. A rough estimate prepared by an NGO called End Children’s Prostitution in Asian Tourism reveals that there are around 2 million prostitutes in India, 20 per cent among them are minors.

A study conducted in 2001 estimates that any one time, 30,000 girls are being transported from one part of the country to another. Mainly it's in the District of Balesore, Kalahandi & Nabarangpur in Odisha where thousands of poor people, women & children are trafficking which are not come infront of the Government calculation.

Government Initiatives
In the SAARC region, the police forces of the respective countries meant to be are ‘the most important institutions in the struggle to eradicate trafficking’ (United Nations 2001). In reality though, police involvement in trafficking is indicated in all the reports and corruption within the force is said to be ‘endemic’.

The Indian Constitution prohibits all forms of trafficking under Article 23. The Suppression of the Immoral Traffic Act, 1956 (amended to the Immoral Traffic Prevention Act) was in response to the ratification of the International Convention on Suppression of Immoral Traffic and Exploitation of Prostitution of Others in 1950 by India.

Monday, May 11, 2009

Social Learning Process in Psychology

Learning is relatively permanent change on behaviour that results due to experience or reinforced practice.

It also refers to concerted activity that increases the capacity and willingness of individuals, groups, organizations and communities to acquire and productively apply new knowledge and skills, to grow, develop and mature successfully. Such learning empowers individuals and organizations to make wise choices, solve problems.

Nature & characteristics of Learning
Learning through observation & experience
Learning involves changes
Learning develop ones personality

Learning through observation & experience
When a child grows up she/he can observe, learn & get experience from her/his parents, teacher, peers, television & Institutions. She/he learn morality, truth, behavior from her/his surrounding.

Learning involves changes
Learning arises with ones growth & maturation. Learning is a continuous process. It’s continue throughout our life from birth to death.

Learning develop ones personality
Through learning a person became more intelligent & develop a good personality.

Theories of Learning
Trial & Error learning
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Social Learning

Trial & Error Learning
When a person make error , get trial & learn many things from that error. This is the foundation stage of learning.

Classical Conditioning:
In this stage, a person react towards an artificial stimulus, in the same time her/his mind responding towards that natural stimulus. For example create saliva when think about a favourite dish as meat or milk.

Operant Conditioning
Work something with an expectation to achieve goal.

Social Learning
Social Learning means what a person learn from the society. The social learning centre may be a family, school, peer, institution or ones surrounding.

Methods of Social Learning
Observation:
Observe others and follow what they are doing.
Imitation:
Follow others philosophy & idea & carry out that in her/his practical life.
Modeling:
Copy others attitude, facial expression, way of talking, behaviour

Process of Social Learning:
Attention process
Retention process
Motor reproduction process
Reinforcement process

Attention process
People only observe & learn from a model when they recognize & play attention to its features.

Retention process
Retention process means how an individual quire knowledge & remember model’s action when she/he is not available or present.

Motor reproduction process
Learn something by observation & convert that things by performing activities.

Reinforcement process
If the model's behaviour is positive, an individual will motivated, give more attention, learn better, utilise those things in her/his practical life & perform more.

Friday, May 8, 2009

Interim Budget 2009-10


The Budget is a statement of the financial position of an administration for a definite period of time based on estimate of expenditures during the period and proposals for financing them.The Interim Budget 2009-10 presented to Parliament on February 16th.


Initiatives & Achievements

Flagship Programmes

  • Allocation raised to Rs. 1,31,317 Crore for 2009-10. NREGA gets Rs.30,100 crore, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Rs.13,100 Crore
  • National Rural Health Mission Rs 12,070 crore and Bharat Nirman Rs 40,900 crore

Agriculture

  • Farm Credit disbursement up by 300% to Rs 2,50,000 crore in 2007-08
  • Rs 65,300 crore debt waiver and relief given to 3-6 crore farmers
  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikash Yojana launched in 2007-08
  • Revival package in 25 States for streangthening short-term cooperative credit structure

Rural Development

  • Panchayat Empowerment and accountability scheme to be expanded
  • Project arrow to provide technology enabled services through post offices
  • Rural Infrastructure Development Fund corpus increased to Rs 14,000 crore in 2008-09
    60.12 Lakh houses for weaker sections constructed under Indira Awas Yojana

Education

  • 15 Central Universities established , 6 new IITs functioning, 2 more to start this year
  • A new centrally sponsored scheme to universalize secondary education launched in 2008-09
  • 500ITIs upgraded. National skill development corporation created in July 2008

Social sector

  • Authorised capital of National Safai Karmachari Finance and Development Corporation raised to Rs 300 crore
  • Two new schemes-Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme and Indira GandhiNational Disability Pension Scheme announced
  • Priyadarshini Project, a rural women’s employment programme to be launched on pilot basis in Madhubani & Sitamarhi district of Bihar and Shravasti, Baharaich, Rae Bareli in Uttar Pradesh

(Information from "YOJANA" A Development Monthly)


Tuesday, May 5, 2009

Poverty & The Role of Civil Society


Civil Society
Civil Society is consisting of civic members. It may be the Institutional or non institutional form to take care of the problems associated with the victims of the problems associated with the victims of the locality & which can be addressed strategically to find-out the root cause & in a scientific solution to it.


When starvation, hunger, poverty threat the whole society, Government make plans to provide social security but when failed it welcome to the civil society. It was on 1860, civil society functioning for the 1st time. The civil societies are basically recognized one Government affiliation for its remarkable social reconstruction objectives. Considering the facts, government has pleased to register those societies which are committed with its clear-out goal & objectives for the betterment of the society.

Poverty
The person who earn more than 17,500 in a year is called a person with poverty. Poverty is a relative term which refers to a meaning helplessness/inability to fulfill fundamental necessities & amenities to maintain a minimum enjoyable standard of human life in the locality in comparison with others.

Civil society & poverty
Poverty we found within the society & to eradicate the poverty civil societies are playing a viortal role. Civil Society is the only welfare organization which help people to be unable to come out of the social evils and fight against negative forces which hinder her/him in achieving self-design goal & objectives within her/his own resources.

Poverty & Civil Society relation into 3 categories
1.Cash
2.Resources
3.Human resources

1. Cash, poverty & civil society
Under the regular income of a person if its not helpful to fulfill her/his basic necessities such as afford food, cloth, maintenance of shelter along with help health-seeking behaviour to keep it in a sound states. That is called poverty due to lack of cash. It’s the civil society through providing free education, health facility, house & food & vocational training for their sustainable life can be help the poor people.

2. Resources, poverty & civil society
A person who is absolutely lack of transible & non-transible resources must get benefit through civil societies. Civil society may provide man-power, money, material resources & help people, aware them about the use of internal resources & guide them for getting benefit from the external resources. Poverty is the cause of lack of resource & civil society is the way to reduce poverty.

3. Human resources, poverty & civil society
Human resources means the resources which are essential for ones livelihood. A person if proved himself to be resourceful & protect himself for her/his survival stay apart from struggle, enjoy her/his life & human rights without inviting any problem is called a person with human resources. Through educating people about their right & available sources within the society for their livelihood, the civic members can reduce poverty in some extent.

Classification of poverty & civil society
1. Poverty related to food
2. Poverty related to afford
3. Poverty related to identify crisis

Ten Famous Social Reformers who fight against Social Evils

A reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements.

Reformists' ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in utopian, socialist or religious concepts. Some rely on personal transformation; others rely on small collectives, such as Mahatma Gandhi's spinning wheel and the self sustaining village economy, as a mode of social change.

1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was popularly known as the 'Father of Indian Renaissance ' was born on 22nd May 1772 in a Brahmin family in Bengal.He founded the Atmiya Sabha in 1815 and the Brahmo Samaj on 20th August 1828. Through these Institutions he fought against Orthodox Hindus and the fanatic Christian Missionaries.

He was against of Sati system, Polygamy, Child marriage, Caste system and Untouchability. He was the great supporter of Inter-caste marriage, women education, Widow remarriages etc. Ram Mohan started publishing Newspapers and Magazines for which he was called the 'Father of Indian Journalism'.

2. Mahatma Gandhi
According to Gandhi " I would make the spinning-wheel, the foundation on which build a sound village life". Gandhian way of education put emphasis on the development of body, mind, heart & soul. His scheme of education he called “Nai Talim” a beautiful blend of craft, art, health & education in one & covers the whole education of the individual till death.

His education is more for girls than the boys. Gandhi ji was the first who Break the bridge between touchable & untouchable. He was the devotee of non-violence.

3. Gopabandhu Dash
Gopabandhu Dash (1877–1928) known as Utkal Mani(Gems of Odisha) was a defining social worker who excelled in the field of politics as well as literature. Gopabandhu was a legend in the Indian culture. He served his people even at the cost of his family.

During his study period, he started Kartavya Bodhini Samiti (Duty Awakening Society) to encourage his friends to do their duty as citizens and take on social, economic and political problems. He was leading a team to aid flood victims, when he heard of his son's serious illness but remained to serve the locals rather than return home to his son. he became the founder president of Congress in Odisha.

4. Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda was another important Social Reformer who brought spiritual reawakening among the Indians in the 19th Century, popularly known as the ‘Intellectual Monk of India’ He was born in Calcutta on 12th, January, 1863. He began his life of wondering all over the country with his message of ‘Awakened India’ or ‘Prabhuda Bharat’.

He set-up ‘Ramakrishna Mission’ on 1st May, 1897. According to him, ‘Man is the maker of his own Destiny. The whole world has been made by the energy of man, by the power of faith’.

5. Swami Dayanada Saraswati
Swami Dayanada born in 1824 in a small town of Gujarat. Swami Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of the 'Arya Samaj' was one of the maker of Modern India. His Arya Samaj gave emphasis on the liberation of the Hindu Society. He called people ‘Go back to the Veda’ created consciousness among the people.

He strongly opposed Idol worship, ritualism, practice of animal sacrifice, the idea of Heaven etc. This movement also challenged the Christian Missionaries who tried to convert the uneducated, poor and depressed classes of the Hindus.

6. Annie Besant
Annie Besant was of Irish origin and made India her second home. She fought for the rights of Indian and was the first woman president of Indian National Congress. In 1893, she left for India having been influenced by the Indian culture and civilization. She was famous as a social worker, educationalist, journalist, prominent Theosophist, social reformer, political leader, women's rights activist, writer and orator. She fought for the Human Rights of Indian women.

7. Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was born on April 14, 1891 in Mhow (presently in Madhya Pradesh). Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is viewed as messiah of dalits and downtrodden in India. He was the chairman of the drafting committee in 1947. Bhimrao Ambedkar experienced caste discrimination right from the childhood.he was the first who reduce the bridge between tribal & non-tribal.

8. Medha Patkar
Medha Patkar was born in Mumbai. On 28 March 2006, Patkar started a hunger-strike to protest against the decision of the authorities to raise the height of the Narmada Dam. She ended her 20-day fast on 17 April 2006, after the Supreme Court of India refused the Narmada Bachao Andolan's appeal to stop the construction of the dam.

She was held by the police at Singur on 2 December 2006 after protesting against the acquisition of farmland. She is a great social Reformer & social Activist.

9. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade
Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade was a distinguished judge, writer cum social reformer of India during the pre-independence era. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade was a judge, politician, writer cum reformer of India. Politically, Ranade established the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha and was also among those who played a phenomenal role in setting up the Indian National Congress party. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade was also an active reformer.

He set up the Social Conference movement, which worked against infant marriages, widows remarriage, spending heavily in marriages and other social functions. Ranade advocated for widow remarriage and female education.

10.Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was a grat poet and novelist. In his famous book "Kamala Kanter Daffer" pointed out the social evils and blind beliefs prevalent in Indian Soiety, which were pertaining to injustice to the poor and the downtrodden. He advocated remwedial measures for the eradication of all the evils.He wanrs to maintain equality between the rich and the poor. The famous song'Bande Mataram" was his creation.