Thursday, April 30, 2009

Practice of Polygyny

Polygyny is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. Generally the practice of having more than one wife at a one time is called polygyny or where a male has more than one recognized female sexual partners or wife at the one time.

It had practiced more in ancient civilization. Though today Hindu Law is very strictly make provisions against polygyny, today too its widely spread among primitive tribes. Its mainly practiced among the Gondos of India, African Nigros, Cirow tribes, Eskimo tribes etc.

There
have so many causes which leads to Polygyny are as following:

More women less men
Polygyny becomes a natural practice whenever there is a access of females over males. Its usually practice due to imbalance of sex ratio. Due to female foeticides, women atrocities the number of female quite reduce which is the cause of polygyny.

Economic advantage
Some of the African tribes practice polygyny for economic reason. In that type of tribes women have contribute income to the family by various means. Some time the 1st wife compel the husband to go for second marriage so that she can reduce her load of work at home.

Women as bodges of distinction
A man’s social status has often measure in terms of numbers of wife that he has. In some communities people think that greater the number of women greater the prestige.

Sex is a biological phenomena
Constancy of sex urge is the natural urge of male. Man have the sex stimulation throughout the year and polygyny provides them an opportunity to enjoy sex life, mainly during pregnancy 0f wife.

Infertility
Childlessness/infertility is one of the important cause leads to polygyny. In the Hindu culture it has a legend that the male child have given pinda to the parents, after they die. So to get Moksha generally people are going for polygyny.

Taste for variety
Generally male persons are go for several women because to taste for variety, it's one type of recreation. Mainly in the State of Rajastan, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar & Odisha we found thes types of practice.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Three levels of Project Planning

Project is a plan specifying certain objective to be accomplished within a specified time frame & resources. Project is a need based intervention undertaken by organization according to its capacity.

Planning
Planning is a future oriented process of decision making. Planning is done within the basis of available data on the community & organization.


Project planning
How the plan & programme can be manage, project will be monitoring, evaluate, identifying the sources to succeed the project, that all idea about the project is called project planning.

Three levels of project planning
There have 3 components of project as:
  • Goal
  • Purpose
  • Result
Goal
Goal can be achieve through Objective & Target Group. Goal is a broader, long term effect or consequence to which project activities contribute partly. Settings of goal is essential to fulfill certain objectives. Without planning, achieving the goal project work is meaningless.


Objective
An objective is the changed situations, usually in the physical environment or the behaviour of the target groups or in the benefit to them, arising out of the efforts made as part of project implementation. Objective is to change the future situation of the target group.

Target group
Target group means the beneficiaries. The vulnerable group, the needy people who are affected, who are suffered. Project work is to solve the problem of the target group & give a better life to them.

Purpose
The specific improvement of the project is called purpose. Give respect to the behaviour of target group & work according to the available resource & their demand. This is the purpose of a project planning.

Result
The result of a project planning is positive if the activities are In a proper way. Project activity is a part of project result. Result is the output. Through awareness programme, counseling, family visit we can get a good result. If a project planner have sufficient resources, man power, infrastructure than she/he will get positive result.



Activity
Activity is to get good result. Activity is to change the present situation & to aware the target group. Activity is necessary to transfer input into planned output within a specified period of times. With this 3 components as goal, purpose & result a project planning can be succeed in some extent.

A project plan can be considered to have five key characteristics as
Scope: defines what will be covered in a project.
Resource: what can be used to meet the scope.
Time: what tasks are to be undertaken and when.
Quality: the spread or deviation allowed from a desired standard.
Risk: defines in advance what may happen to drive the plan off course, and what will be done to recover the situation.

Monday, April 27, 2009

Technoligal changes & their impact on society

Technology refers to applied science or application of science for Industrial uses. Technology initiates changes by stimulating people’s thought towards life & universe. The shift from old Asiatic mode of production to new feudal mode of production changed the western society from the phase of ancient slavery to medieval serfdom. New technological inventions also create new needs & sets novel means to achieve them.

Positive changes:

  • Technological innovations I the field of space & navigation
  • Change in production
  • Set-up of modern technological education
  • Growth of urban centers
  • Worldwide trade
  • Improvement of mass media
  • Development of communication technology

Technological innovations in the field of space & navigation:
The technological devices have successfully demonstrated the components of physical world such as atom, gases, solar, energy, gravitation power, minerals, air, water, sun shine etc. These have revolutionary changes in man’s idea about the world & universe.

Changes in production:
In the ancient period the way of production of the common people was only agriculture. Though today too, more than 75% of common people depend on agriculture but due to the development of techniques the hybrid seeds, hi quality machines are reach to the farmers & people are engage in industrial works, business etc.

Set-up modern technological education:
Due to the set-up modern technological development, the women has come out of family. This has changed her status to a great extent by which they are gradually becoming educated, independent & progressive.

Growth of Urban Centre:
Many novel rules & regulations have been enacted to maintain peace & harmony in the Urban societies which are quite heterogeneous, formalized & where relationship is fragile & transitory. Industrialization has also caused a number of changes in caste, religion & ideologies of people.

Worldwide trade:
There have frequent exchange of ideas, thoughts, inventions, goods & services among the nations, inventions, goods & services among the nations. All these are the gift of modern transportation & communication technology. World wide trade & commerce has been made the world smaller day by day not physically but socially & psychologically.

Development of Communication technology:
The establishment of railway, printing press, postal during the British rule contributed towards national reawakening & freedom movement.

Improvement of Mass Media:
The mass media like TV, Radio, cinema, newspaper etc have changed people’s way of life, way of thinking & way of spending leisure hours & modes of entertainment.

Negative Changes:

  • Increase of Migration
  • Environmental & ecological imbalance
  • Destruction of cottage industry

Increase of migration:
Migration is called to be a function of labour reallocation in response to market demands. The numbers of male migrants who moves from rural to urban area are more & they moved mostly in search of jobs to work as wage labourers, which is the main cause of HIV/AIDS, prostitution, family disorganization, alcoholism & Cancer.

Environmental & ecological imbalance:
Due to rise of industries & deforestation there have lots of valuable plants & creatures has vanished from the Earth. The natural disasters like flood, cyclone, earth quake, drought are being viewed as the divine punishments against man’s bad deeds.

Destruction of cottage industry:
The establishment of large-scale industries & factories have destroyed the village & cottage industries. The break-down of cottage industry has brought women out of home in search of employment.

Sunday, April 26, 2009

Right to Education "A Fundamental Right"

Over 42% of our population today is below 18 and they are children & India has the largest child population in the world. 50% of Indian children aged 6-18 do not go to school. So dropout rates increase alarmingly in class III to V. Its 50% for boys & 58% for girls. The Indian constitution provides special status to the children up to the age of 14 years.


Government’s initiatives towards Universalization of Primary Education is recommendable. Every child must enjoy the Right to Education. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is being implemented in partnership with State Governments to cover the entire country and addresses the needs of 192 million children in 1.1 million habitations & making children’s education universal, up to the age of 14 years.

Though easy access to primary education has increased enrollment rates in schools significantly, poor quality of education has remain same in the schools mainly in rural belt due to lack of qualified teachers, lack of infrastructure, lack of basic educational tools etc. are matters of great concerns. More than 50% of children in the school going age 6-14 years are deprived from right to education & engaged in different works as in agriculture, mining or working as domestic servant.

India has the largest number of child labourers in the world today with 12.7 million economically active children of 5-14 years according to 2001 Census. Article 45 of the Directive Principles of State Policy provide free & compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14 .

The 86th Amendment says that, the Government shall provide free & compulsory education to all children below the age of 14. The Right to Education Bill 2008 defines that it’s the the duty of state to provide free & compulsory education to all children below the age of 14 years without any financial barrier & help in every sphere may be to provide fees, cost of books, transportation, uniforms.

This bill also said that every school must have a school management committee where more than half the members are the parents of the children.This bill also give emphasis to mother tongue of the child, abolition of physical punishment, ban on private tuition & make free the students from fear.

Problems in a Family

Family has defined as a group of persons of both sexes, related by marriage, blood or adoption performing roles based on age, sex & relationship. Family generally means a group of people living together having blood relationship, their mentality may be same or different but they share same kitchen.


Every family is unique with its own value of principles, ethics and way of living. Every family have some problems it may be large or small. To live a better life we have to drive out all problems because we know from the child hood a child observe & learn many things from her/his family & according to which go in positive or negative direction.

Genuine problems of a Family:

  • Poverty
  • Unemployment
  • Infertility
  • External marital affairs
  • Unwanted pregnancy
  • External marital affairs
  • Child abuse
  • Empty cell marriage
  • Unwed pregnancy
  • Spouse abuse
  • Misunderstanding
  • Dominating nature of spouses
  • Sexual exploitation
  • Teen issues
  • Age gape between spouses
  • Ill health
  • Overloading domestic work

Saturday, April 25, 2009

Female Foeticides in India

The women has to suffer from the mother's womb is not a new concept. This concept is as old as the civilization itself.

Mainly after two world war the number of female foeticides are growing at alarming speed. India have more female foeticides as cases filed in India, Its 416 in December 2007 according to the PNDT Act.

About 5-7 lakh girls a year or 2000 girls a day go missing in India due to female foeticide.The child sex ratio for the age group of 0-6 years has currently 927 per 1000 boys. Punjab has 798 girls, Haryana 819, Delhi 868 and Gujurat 883 per 1000 boys.

Female Foeticide cases
  •  In June 2007, a doctor was arrested on illegally aborting 260 female foetus after police recovered bones & skulls from a septic tank in a maternity clinic in New Delhi.
  • On July 23, 2007 Nayagarh District (Odisha) police had discovered 40 dead female infants in a dry well near a private clinic & within one month again from Bhubaneswar police got 30 foeticides in 15 jars near the Forest Park. The only reason of these issues are discrimination between male & female.
  • From official record it has estimated that in India everyday 7000 female foeticides has taken place. Shocking statistics reveal that as many as 10 million girls in India have been killed by their parents either before or immediately after birth over the past 20 years.
MTP Act
The Maternal Terminal of Pregnancy or the MTP Act was came into force in 1971. This was the first law to regulate the termination of pregnancy. Thus otherwise the termination of pregnancy has been legalized. According to this Act, if the pregnancy would involve a risk to life of pregnant women or cause grave injury/physical or mental dis-balance of the foetus, in that case she can be go for abortion.

PNDT Act
To check the practice of determination of sex before birth of a child is illegal in the eyes of law, according to the Prenatal Diagnostic test Act, 1994. According to the new Law, the person who disobey the PNDT Act, the penalty which at present between 10,000 to 1 lakh is being enhanced to anywhere between Rs.3 to 7 lakh.

Friday, April 24, 2009

The Concept of Legal Aid & Social Justice Cell

Legal Aid, in its common sense, conveys the assistance provided by the society to its weaker members in their effort to protect their rights & liberties.

The general meaning of the term "legal Aid" therefore is a legal support, social security, social arrangement, extending and providing special assistance or help to the poorer and weaker members to enable them enforce their legal rights through legal process.

Therefore the provision legal aid is essential for the safe walk of democracies on the track of rule of law & the equal protection of laws.

Social justice cell
The Social Justice Cell we means the institutions/cells which are working to provide adequate support service & justice to the common people through Legal Aid. There have some provisions of Legal Aids as:
  • The Constitution
  • PIL
  • The Lok Adalat
  • The women cell
  • The law colleges
  • Legal advice by voluntary org.
  • The Gram Panchayat
The Constitution
The Constitution of the republic of India, which came into force on 26th January, 1950, with 395 articles and nine schedules, is one of the most elaborate fundamental law ever adopted. The Preamble to the Constitution pledges to secure to all the citizens of India Justice, social, economic and political, liberty of thought, expression, equality of status, fraternity assuring dignity of the individual. The Constitution aims to ensure equality before law, thereby turning to be the first source of legal aid.

The PIL
The Publi Interest Litigation is intended to promote & vindicate public interest which demands that violations of constitutional or legal rights of large number of people who are poor, ignorant or in a socially or economically disadvantaged position .

The Lok Adalat
Lok Adalat is a central & state level body which established to promote, guide& supervise the establishment and working of legal aid clinics, bureaus and other law colleges & Universities.It make proposals with a view to reaching legal aid & social justice to the weaker sections of the society .

The Women Cell
The National perspective plan for women had recommended that the planning commission & each ministry/department should have a women’s cell. The women cell should review the plan, schemes and other programmes. Mandatory crime women cell should function in every Police Station & power has given to the DGP to take initiatives for investigation.

The Law Colleges
The Law Colleges turns to the Primary medium of spreading legal literacy. The University & the Board of Control has taken a decision to make legal literacy & legal conciliation as a part of academic teaching for the final year students. The legal aid clinics have also established in the law department of all the Universities in the State.

Legal advice by the V.O
The Voluntary Organizations provide supplement supports to such people who are in problem. Specially the All India Women Associations, The Rotary Clubs, CYSD, We Can, Red Cross, Help Line, Zuban (New Delhi) are working to provide right & justice to the people.

The Gram Panchayat
After the Gram Panchayat Act,1994, the Gram Panchayats are largely engaged & interested in the development work, working to provide justice at doorsteps, for which they get liberal grants from the State/Central Government. But due to illiteracy of panchayat functionaries as regards the provisions of law, they avoiding legal works.

Thursday, April 23, 2009

Beggary a "Social Problem"

Beggary is a major problem which is today affecting large population of India. There are large number of beggars in India who are forced in to doing begging because our societies fails in providing any good alternative to them.

For the last few centuries India has suffered acute poverty. From the ancient times, the main cause of poverty was various taxes. poverty, disability and unemployment is the problem of beggary which is a social problem.

The other issue is slightly more serious where large numbers of beggars are in begging for earning easy money. The major issues with this beggary problem are non awareness about this whole business, society’s failure, no humanitarian solutions and failure of government in stopping beggary because of which large number of children deprived from right to education & childhood. Indian government never tried to rectify the faulty system by repealing anti-poverty or beggary laws. In fact, poor women, children and elderly people need help from the government to obtain food and shelter.



Bombay Beggary Prevention Act 1960
An Act to consolidate and Where it is expedient to make uniform and better provision for the prevention of begging in the state of Bombay, for the detention training and employment of beggars and their dependents in certain institutions, for the custody, trial and punishment of beggar offenders and for other purposes to consolidate and the purpose of making uniform and better provision for the prevention of begging in Bombay, Government has amended the law relating to beggers.

Short title
This Act may be called the Bombay Prevention of Begging Act, 1959.

Extention
It extends to the whole of the Union Territory, Delhi.
It shall come into force on such date as the Chief Commissioner may by notification in the Delhi Gazette, appoint.

Definitions
In this Act,
"begging" means:-
  • Soliciting or receiving alms, in a public place whether or not doing such as signing, dancing, fortune telling, performing or offering any article for sale;
  • Entering on any private premises or the purpose of soliciting or receiving alms;
  • Exposing or exhibiting, with the object of obtaining or extorting alms, any sore, wound injury, deformity of diseases whether of a human being or animal;
  • Having no visible means of subsistence and wandering, about or remaining in any public place in such condition or manner, as makes it likely that the person doing so exist soliciting or receiving alms.
But does not include soliciting or receiving money or food or given for a purpose authorises by any law, or authorised in the manner prescribed by the Deputy Commissioner or such other officer as be specified in this behalf by the Chief Commissioner.

The government of Bangladesh is banning beggars. With a law approved in an open vote, the parliament has decided that anyone who asks for charity in public, or displays handicaps or mutilations in order to obtain money, will be punished with three months in prison.

According to United Nations estimates, about 40% of the population as around 150 million live under poverty line and forceable to do begging. As per the latest estimates available for the year 1999-2001, Jammu and Kashmir has the lowest percentage of people living below the poverty line (3.48%) and Orissa has the highest percentage of people living below the poverty line (47.15%).

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

The Origin of Earth Day


In 1963, because of the changeness in climate and increase of pollution in our earth the former Senator Gaylord Nelson began worry about our planet.He decided to have a special day to teach everyone about the things that needed changing in our environment.

He wrote letters to all of the colleges and put a special article in Scholastic Magazine to tell them about the special day he had planned. On April 22, 1970, the first Earth Day was held.

People all over the country made promises to help the environment. Everyone got involved and since then, Earth Day has spread all over the planet. People all over the world know that there are problems we need to work on and this is our special day to look at the planet and see what needs changing.

Other related issues
Apr 17 - Environmental Justice Volunteers Mobilize Nationwide for clean up Earth
Apr 16 - Green Technologies and Buildings Bloom on the National Mall
Apr 16 - New Campaign to Educate Kids on Fighting Climate Change

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993

Human Rights means the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by Courts in India.


Constitution of a National Human Rights Commission
 The Central Government shall constitute a body to be known as the National Human Rights Commission under the Human Rights Act of 1993 to exercise the powers conferred upon and to perform the functions assigned to it under this Act.


The Commission shall consists of
  • A Chairperson who shall been a Chief justice of the Supreme Court
  • One member who is, or has been, a judge of the Supreme Court
  • One member who is, or has been the Chief Justice of a High Court
  • Two members to be appointed from amongst persons having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to Human Rights
  • The Chairpersons of the National Commission for Minorities, the National Commission for the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes and the National Commission
  • There shall be a secretary general who shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Commission and shall exercise all powers
  • The head quarter of the Commission should be in Delhi 
Functions and powers of the commission
  • Inquire violence of the Human Rights
  • Visit jail or any or any other institution under the control of the state government, where persons are detained or lodged for purpose of treatment or protection to study
  • Review the safeguards provided by the Constitution
  • Review the factors, including facts of terrorism, that inhibits the enjoyment of human rights
  • Study treaties and other International instruments on human rights
  • Undertake and promote research in the field of human rights
  • Spread human right literacy among various sections of society and promote awareness of the safeguards available for the protection of these rights through publications, media, seminars
  • Encourage the efforts of non governmental organizations and institutions in the field of human rights
Human Rights Court
For the purpose of providing speedy trial of offences arising out of violation of human rights, the state government with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of the High Court specify to the each district a court of session called as Human Rights Court.

Wednesday, April 15, 2009

Community Organization a tool to empower Local People

Community Organization is a people oriented development process that encourages appropriate use of own resources, resulting in capacity building and willingness to contribute. It’s a process to empowering local people/vulnerable groups and create awareness, build stability at the local level.It is essential in the context of crisis and conflict to stabilize the livelihood strategies o0f people and to encourage their self-help potential.

Aims of Community Organization:

  • To strengthen capacity & capabilities of local communities
  • To aware people about their potential
  • To encourage them to sustain by their own resources
  • To enhance local government
  • To facilitate into the local market economy
  • To close the gape between service provider & local people
  • To make local communities become partner in development
  • To make the community people self reliant

Principles of Community Organization :

  1. Contact
  2. Capacity promotion
  3. Social Responsibility
  4. Transparency & Accountability
  5. Sustainability
  6. Gender
  7. Harmlessness

1. Contact :
Community organization establishes contact between all relevant persons and institutions and make open communication with partners involved in the project cycle.

2. Capacity promotion :
Community organization aims at unfolding the capabilities and capacities of local partners and service providers. Its aim is to increase the ability of partners to handle such projects with less assistance in the future.

3. Social responsibility :
Community organization demands that the elite care about the more vulnerable in the villages. Vulnerable families are to be integrated into the community.

4. Transparency and accountability :
Every villager has the right to know about the technical procedures, the financial matters and the project components and its progress.

5. Sustainability :
Community organization demands local responsibility, commitment and contributions to initiate ownership among those who benefit from the project.

6 Gender:
Everyone within the community it may be female, male, young, old person or children
Should given rights & caring according to their need & capabilities.

7. Harmlessness :
Community organization should finalize all conflicts within the community.

Monday, April 13, 2009

Types of Group in Social Work Method

A group is essential to identify & solve the problems of a number of members within a community. Formation of group is essential in every where it may be in family, pioneer group or any institution.

Types of Groups:

  1. Primary group/small group
  2. Secondary group

Primary group:
Primary group is small group in which a small number of persons come into direct contact with one-another. For Exp:Family, pioneer group

Characteristics of small group:

  • Physical proximity
  • Small in size
  • Stability
  • Similar status
  • Self interest towards group
  • Mutual sharing between individuals

Secondary groups:
Secondary groups are consisting of a large number of people. For Exp:Labour party, Students union

Characteristics of secondary group:

  • Large in size
  • Formal and impersonal relationship
  • Active & Inactive
  • Indirect relationship
  • Goal oriented
  • State of individual

Sunday, April 12, 2009

Laws regarding Environment Protection

There has been substantive decline in environmental quality due to increaseing of pollution, loss of vesental and biological diversity, excessive concession of harmful chemical in the abident atmosphere and in food change. This changes leads to growing risk of environmental accident and threat to life support system.

Environment protection Act-1986
This Act extend to the whole of India. Under this Act environment refers to water, air, land and the inter-relationship between water, air, land and human beings, other living creatures, plants, micro organisms and property.
Section-3
The Central Government constitute an authority under its direction and control for the protection of environment.

Section 4
The Central Government appoint officers with such designations as it deems fit, for the purpose of this Act and entrust to them such powers and functions deemed fit.
Section 5
Closure, prohibition and regulation of any Industry, Stoppage or regulation of the supply of electricity or water or any other service & the officer/authority connected shall be found to comply with such directions.

Environmental Laboratory
The Central Government by notifications in the official gazette have establish environment laboratories in different part of Country. These laboratories are involves, concerning the entrusted activities related to environmental provisions under this Act.

Environmental awareness
In cinema halls, T.V, Radio & short term programmes in school and colleges information & messages given to people for protection and maintaining of environment.



Appointment of Climate Managers
To fight against climate change and control of over pollution Govt. has planned to appoint trained climate managers in villages who create awareness among the people about natural disasters and how to face such crises.

Other Laws related to Environment
  • Share Nuisance Act-1853
  • The Indian Penal Code-1860
  • The Oriental Gas Company Act-1887
  • Water Prevention & control of pollution Act-1974
  • Air prevention & control of pollution Act-1981
  • Environment Protection Act-1986
  • The Factories Amendment Act-1987
  • The Air Prevention & Control of Pollution

Thursday, April 9, 2009

Health Initiatives to control IMR,MMR & prevent types of diseases


NRHM Initiatives & its general Objectives:

NRHM(National Rural Health Mission) Universally access to public services for food and nutrition, sanitation and hygiene and universal access to public health care services with emphasis on services addressing women’s and children’s health and universal immunization.



  • Reduction in child and maternal mortality
  • Prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases, including locally endemic diseases
  • Access to integrated comprehensive primary health care
  • Population stabilisation, gender and demographic balance
  • Revitalisation of local health traditions and mainstream AYUSH
  • Promotion of healthy life styles

Objectives of ASHA:

  • Create awareness on health and its social determinants
  • Mobilize the community towards local health planning
  • Increase utilization and accountability of the existing health services
  • Promote good health practices
  • Provide a minimum package of curative care as appropriate and feasible for that level
  • Undertaking timely referrals

Objectives of Immunization :

  • Contribute global eradication of Polio by 2007
  • Elimination of Neonatal Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis by 2009
  • Measles mortality and morbidity reduction to 80% by 2010, compared to 2000 estimate
  • Achieve and maintain vitamin A supplementation coverage to 80% under the age of 3 Years
  • Establish sufficient sustainable and accountable fund flow at all levels
  • Ensure there is sustained demand and reduced social barriers to access immunisation services
All Districts in different countries will provide equitable, efficient and safe immunisation services to all infants and pregnant women. Aim is to achieve 100% full immunisation status & control IMR(Infant mortality rate) & MMR(Maternal mortality rate) by 2009-2010 and to maintain it for long.

2005-06---------50%
2006-07---------60%
2007-08---------75%
2008-09---------95%
2009-10---------100%

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Characteristics of Group Work

Group work is essential to work with a systematic plan having understanding, we feelings and concentration. Group workers are viewed as helping persons whose job is to help people by identifying her/his problem, skill and ability.

Characteristic of Group work:

  1. Group work practiced by group itself
  2. It’s based on humanitarian philosophy
  3. It gives aspiration to help each other
  4. Group work provides more information and more skill
  5. It develop human personality

1. Group work is practiced by group itself
With the help of group workers, development of the individual changes and personality growth are happen. The group practiced and take steps by his own worth and dignity by the help of its workers.


2. Based on humanitarian philosophy:
Group work is based on humanitarian philosophy. A group get its inspiration from the happiness, joy and prosperity of the member of that particular group within a community. A group must have a belongingness and group philosophy.

3. It gives aspiration to help each other:
Because of living together, sharing problem and emotion of each other they get a aspiration to help each other.
The group help the individual when she/he is in problem.


4. It provides more skill and information:
After formation of a group by a worker the group member get more information and skill. Because of belongingness and helping mind the member can sharing their knowledge among themselves.They get more information about science, resources and techniques.

It develop human personality:

After making a group their networking with other groups, workers and agency develop their personality.

Qualities of Group worker:
Social group worker must have certain essential qualities where she/he brings harmony and co-operation between groups and the individuals on the basis of knowledge and experience. The group worker could only implement her/his work plan on the basis of few skilled essential assessment which are as follows:

  • Selection of group
  • Obtaining maximum information about group
  • Establishing purposeful relationship with the individual in the group
  • Knowledge about status of an individual and analyzing group situation
  • Suitable programme planning and programme implementation process
  • Knowledge about the available resources with in and out side the group
  • Optimum utilization of agency and group resources
  • Evaluating the programme

Tuesday, April 7, 2009

Family Crisis & Crisis Intervention

Crisis is a stressful event which has come accidentally. Crisis is defined as a situation in which the individual may perceive the stress factors or hazardous event as a threat.

Family Crisis:
Family crisis means some stressful events come accidentally to a family. At the time of Family crisis, a person alone can’t cope up with the situation, whatever the situation but everyone have to face it. At the time of crisis a person need help from the all family members and not try to handle things alone. Going through a family crisis is one of the worst situation that any family can go through. Family is one of the most controversial social institution which face numbers of crisis.

Types of Family crisis :

  1. Family crisis related to Individual
  2. Family crisis related to Child bearing
  3. Related to Marital problem
  4. Abuse and violence
  5. Conflict with other systems
  6. Family deprivation

1. Family crisis related to individual:

  • Individual with disabled
  • Chronically/terminally ill
  • Psychopathic personality
  • Substance abuse
  • Unemployment
  • Illiteracy
  • Disability
  • Alcoholism

2. Family crisis related to child:

  • Infertility
  • Unwed Motherhood
  • Infanticide
  • Psycho-somatic problem of child

3. Related to marital problem:

  • Marital disharmony
  • Domestic violence
  • Dowry torture
  • Polygyny

4. Abuse and violence:

  • Child abuse
  • Sexual abuse
  • Teapism

5. Conflict with other system:

  • Family with poverty
  • Disease due to lack of sanitation

6. Deprivation:

  • Destitute women
  • Destitute children
  • Destitute adult and aged

Crisis Intervention:

A therapy/intervention which has given to a family to deal with some crisis to make free from that problem is called Crisis Intervention.

Methods of Crisis intervention:

  1. Immediate focus on the crisis situation
  2. Discuss about the current situation
  3. Make an attempt to partialise the situation
  4. Identify the specific problem with which the client is struggling
  5. Make the concrete crisis meeting activities

Monday, April 6, 2009

Dimensions of Health


When all parts of body is functioning properly called as a good body having health. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1948, “ Health is generally defined as being "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Health is a state of complete physical, mental & social well being and not merely the absence of disease of infirmity.” Health is generally achieved through a combination of physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being.



Dimensions of Health:

  1. Physical Dimension
  2. Mental Dimension
  3. Social Dimension
  4. Spiritual Dimension
  5. Emotional Dimension
  6. Vocational Dimension
  7. Philosophical Dimension
  8. Cultural Dimension
  9. Socio-economic Dimension
  10. Educational Dimension
  11. Environmental Dimension
  12. Nutritional Dimension
  13. Preventive Dimension

1. Physical dimension:
The state of physical health implies’Perfect functioning of all parts of body.”
The sign of good physical health of an individual are a good completion, a clean skin, bright eyes, hair, body well developed, firm flesh, good appetite, sweet breath, sound sleep, regular activity of bowels, smooth & easy co-ordinate of body movement.

Evaluation of Physical health:

  • Self assessment of overall health
  • Inquiry into symptoms of ill health & risk factor
  • Inquiry into medication
  • Inquiry into levels of activity
  • Inquire into medical services
  • Standardize questionnaires
  • Clinical examination
  • Nutritional assessment
  • Bio chemical & laboratory investigation

2. Mental dimension:
A state of balance between the individual & the surrounding world, of state Of harmony between oneself & others and co-existence between the realities of self and that of the other people and that of environment.’

Qualities of mental health:

  • Free from internal conflict
  • Well adjusted with the situation
  • Accept criticism
  • Search own identity
  • Fix her/his life’s goal
  • Good self control
  • Tackle any problem and try to solve problems

Assessment of mental health:

  • Interview
  • Questionnaires


3. Social dimension:
In every part of our life environment plays a vital role to provide us a good/bad health. It may be mental, social or physical health environment affect the behavioral condition which many times leads to numbers of diseases. Diseases are produced by ‘Agent’, ‘Host’ and Environment’. For Exp- Bird flue, Chikungunia, Cholera, TB etc.
In the early part of life a child observe and learn more things. If one get good environment/surrounding/caring develop positively and if don’t affected by lots of diseases.


4. Spiritual dimension:
The spiritual health refers to that parts of the individual which reaches out & strives for meaning & purpose of life. It includes integrity, principles, ethics and the purpose in life as if committed to some higher beings & belief in concept that are not subject to state of the art.

5. Emotional dimension:
Emotional health relates to feelings. Some negative feelings leads to diseases.

6. Vocational dimension:
Feeling of fitness for a certain career is coming under vocational dimension which has provided good health.

Other dimensions are coming under these six dimensions.

Friday, April 3, 2009

Goal & Functions of Social Group Work

  • Social group work is a orderly, systematic plan, way of working with people in groups. Social group work is not an activity but a way of conducting many different activities. The members are helped to learn new ideas, develop skills, attitude changes & responsibilities through participation in a social process.
    In group work group itself has utilized by the individual with the help of the worker as a primary means of personality growth, change & development of individual.

Goal (Purpose) of Group work :

  • To teach the individual to live & work together and participate in the group activities for their intellectual emotion& physical growth
  • To live a good life within the group and family. The individual is also taught to work together with other people & participate in different activities.
  • To develop individual personality& behavior by using different group work process
  • To prepare the individual to learn how to safe responsibility in a democracy style of working.
  • To give opportunity to them who have potentiality, worth and dignity of leadership
  • To make best use of leisure time
  • To learn division of labour & specialization of role just to indicate to play individual role in the group
  • To provide suitable task to the individual according to her/his skill, knowledge and interest
  • To widen ones horizon
  • To prepare people for social change
  • To apply group therapy in need of physical, mental and emotional adjustment

Functions of group work:

  • Group work mainly see the situation & the needs of all the individuals & try to solve the problems of the individuals. For every individual the group is the main source of strength & renders everybody helping hand.
  • A group fulfill the social desires and need of each individual in the group
  • Group work is carried on with voluntary group in the setting of social agency
  • Group workers tale care of social agencies in many fields as education, religious & recreational field.
  • It’s a helping process with duel purpose of individual & group growth.
  • The function of the group work is always for the betterment of the individual as well as for the growth of the entire group.
  • Group worker plays role of enabler & helping person, by earning an effective group. The group worker is a main person who by her/his better knowledge try to make the group better.

Methods of Social Work

Social work as a profession is a product of this century. Although its roots are well established in history from the time when people 1st began to take responsibility for their neighbors through activities which were called charity, poor relief, philanthropy and social reform .
Social work is to fight against Five Evils as:
  1. Physical want
  2. Disease
  3. Ignorance
  4. Squalor
  5. Idleness

    Objective:
  • To remove social injustice
  • To relieve social injustice
  • To reduce redress
  • To prevent suffering
  • To assist the weaker sections
  • To rehabilitate the distress class people

Methods of Social work
All social work activities are classified into six major categories.

1. Social case work
2. Social group work
3. Community organization
4. Social action
5. Social welfare research
6. Social welfare administration

1. Social case work
Social case work is a method which helps by counseling the individual client to effect better social relationships & a social adjustment that makes it possible him to lead a satisfying & useful life. Gordon Hamilton points out that, “The objective of case work is to administer practical services & offer counseling in such a way as to arouse & conserve psychological energies of the client activity to involve him in the use of the service towards the solution of her/his dilemma.”

2. Social group work
Social group work is an activity which helps to participate in the activities of a group for their intellectual, emotional & physical growth and for the attainment of desirable goals of the groups. Group work as such as a method by which the group worker enables various types of groups to function in such a manner that both group interaction & programme activities contribute to the growth of the individual & the programme activities contribute to the growth of the individual & the achievement of desirable social goals.


3. Community organization
Community organization is the process of planning & developing social services in order to meet the health & welfare needs of a community or larger unit.Mildred Barry says,” Community organization in social work is the process of creating & maintaining a progressively more effective adjustment between community resources & commuity welfare needs.”

4. Social action
It s an organized group process solving general social problems & furthering social welfare objectives by legislative, social, health or economic progress. The term social action refers to organized & legally permitted activities designed to mobiles public opinion, legislation & public administration in favour of objectives believed to be socially desirable.

5. Social welfare research

Social welfare research systematic critically investigation of questions in the social welfare field with the purpose of yielding answares to problems of social work & of extending generally social work concept. The methods appliesd in social work research have been to a largwe extent derived grom those used in sociology & social psychology as well as in history and Anthropology.


6. Social welfare administration
Social welfare administration process is to organize & to direct a social agency. The administrative aspects of social work have to do with the organization & management of social agencies public & private, including in those terms general administrative relationships among ubnits of the same organization, personal problems, questions of finance & so on.





Wednesday, April 1, 2009

Importance of Family Counselling Centre

Counselling is an interpersonal process through which guidance & support has given to a person with psychosocial problems. In simple means counseling is to provide professional, psychological help to the distressed person in a professional manner. Counselling is an act of assistance has provided to a person in difficulty & seeks out someone in whom she/he has confidence for advice & guidance.

Origin of Family Counseling Centre (FCC):
Calcutta University enjoys the privilege of being the first India University to introduce guidance as a section of its department of applied psychology in 1938.

Meaning of FCC:
Family counseling centre is a cell to settle up the family disputes & restore conjugal life by way of mutual understanding.It committed to serving all women who are victims of atrocities.Family counseling centre provides the strength, skills & confidence to deal with life’s challenges & opportunities.

Objective of FCC:
  • To identify the root cause of victims present situation
  • To provide preventive, curative & rehabilitative services to the person with distress
  • To reduce the emotional distress & dis-functional behavior of the clientTo develop her/his potential capacity
  • To assist the client to make important personal decisions

Role of Counselor:

  • Role as advisorSupport service provider
  • Facilitator
  • Motivator
  • Advocacy
  • Counselling

Principles of FCC:

  • Make a friendly relation with the respondent
  • Accept the client as a person not as a case
  • Patientfully listen the victims problem
  • Having relying on victims opinion
  • Provide emotional support service to the client
  • Tackle every situation in a positive way
  • Go to the depth of the situation
  • Go for family visit if its necessary
  • Find-out the ways to provide proper justice to the person Stay in contact with the client until they don’t get justice