Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Monitoring and Evaluation in Social Research

Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) are essential components of good programme management at all levels as in State, District, Block. Monitoring & Evaluation covers assessment of programme inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts.

Although the term monitoring and evaluation tends to get run together as though they are one thing, monitoring & evaluation are in fact two distinct sets of departmental activities which are related but not identical.

Monitoring:

  • Is the systematic collection and analysis of information as a project progresses
  • Is aimed at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of a project or department
  • Is based on targets set and activities planned during the planning phases of work
  • Assesses the progress on a day-to-day basis and thus helps to keep the work on track
  • Help to determine whether the resources available are sufficient and being well used
    Provides a useful base for evaluation

Possible sources for Monitoring

  • Case studies
  • Recorded observation
  • Diaries
  • Recording & analysis of important incidents
  • Structured questionnaires
  • One-on-one interviews
  • Focus groups
  • Sample surveys
  • Systematic review of relevant official statistics

Evaluation:

  • Is the comparisiopn of actful project impacts against the agreed strategic plans.
  • It looks at what the plan of the researcher


Evaluation helps:

  • To identify problems and their causes
  • Suggest possible solutions to problems
  • Raise questions about assumptions and strategy
  • Provide an information & insight
  • Encourage to act on the information and insight
  • Develop positive likeness for people

Monitoring & evaluation are focusing on

  • Efficiency
  • Effectiveness
  • Impact

Monday, March 30, 2009

Different Scope of Social Work

Social work we mean work for the society. Social work is a work by which a social worker can aware individual about their problems, identify their worth & dignity & give a satisfactory and independent life which they can’t get by their own effort. The first school of social work was set-up in Bombay in 1936.

Definition
According to Prof. Friedlander,”Social work is a professional service based upon scientific knowledge & skill in human relations which assists individuals alone or in groups to obtain social & professional satisfaction & independence.”

Scope of Social work
  1. Child development
  2. Medical social work
  3. Clinical social work
  4. Social work administrative & management
  5. International social work
  6. Social work in acute psychiatric hospital
  7. Social work as community organizer
1. Child development:
Children are the most vital part of our Nation. They are the foundation of any nation. For progress of any country their development is necessary. Their mental, physical, emotional, psychological, social development is important. The following services has been organized by the Central Social Welfare Board for welfare of child in India. They are:
  • Right to education
  • Right against exploitation
  • Right for rehabilitation
  • Right to speech & expression
Government policy
  • Institutions for their protection, education & rehabilitation of the socially handicapped children
  • Temporary homes for the sick children suffering from TB & skin disease
  • Children home, infant home, Balbadi, Nursery, Pre-primary school, day care centre, recreation & cultural centres
  • Holiday homes for the children of the family of economic weaker sections
  • Child Health Centre
  • Child Guidance Clinic
  • Schools for Mentally retarded children

    Social workers work in this institutions & tries their level best to solve their problems and strengthen the path forth development of their personality. He also develop the abilities & capabilities of the child.
2. Medical Social Work
The medical social work provide assistance to patient & their family who are coping with many problems
A social worker have the potentiality to aware the Doctor about the problem and collect & analyse patient’s detail information to help other health professions to understand the needs of the patients & their family
In fact when a doctor come into any conclusion in a minute, a social worker diagnosis a problem thoroughly.

3. Clinical Social work
The clinical social work provides a full range of Mental Health Services including assessment, diagnosis & treatment. It provide referral service to individuals, couples, families & groups. Assist clients in adjusting to measure life style changes due to death of loved one, disability, divorce or loss of a job.

4. Social work administration & management
To manage a programme planning is most important. The important of social worker
related to Fund raising & making grants
  • Budget management
  • Monitoring & evaluation of public & social policy
  • Co-ordinate activities to achieve the agencies goal
  • Staff co-ordination
5. International social work
The role of social work is to :
  • Counsel & aid refugees to ensure a smooth transition into a new environment
  • Facilitate international adoption
  • Provide disaster relief in the time of crisis
  • Counsel families to find better solution to their problems. Remove children from abusive situation & place it to care homes
  • Find employment & housing for homeless families
  • Assist pregnant women, adoptive parents & adoptive children in crisis
  • Provide assessment, support, counseling
  • Provide assistants to women & their children who are victims of domestic violence
6. Social work in an acute psychiatric hospital
A social worker can help to a psycho patient very trick fully because of her/his professional quality. She/he can provide-
  • Complete Intake
  • Psycho-social assessment
  • Participate in the treatment plan
  • Provide patient & family education & support
  • Provide individual treatment family & group therapy
  • Provide discharge & after planning
7. Social work as community organizer
  • Assist the community in defining a school problem
  • Provide direction & guidance to the community in-order to mobilize & identified cause by case work, group work & community organization
  • Assist in establishing new programmes to meet the needs of individuals, groups and families
Other Scopes
  • Addiction Treatment
  • Child abuse, adoption & welfare
  • Criminal justice
  • Crisis Intervention
  • Developmental disabilities
  • Disaster relief
  • Domestic Relief
  • Domestic Violence
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Military social work
  • Political development
  • Rural development
  • Industrial development
  • Women welfare

Sunday, March 29, 2009

Importance of Water & Govt. Initiatives

In 1992, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed March 22 as World Water Day with the goal to inspire action and encourage understanding of the need of water. A National water supply programme was introduced in the social sector in 1954. The government if India provided assistance to the States to establish special investigation division in the Fourth Five Year Plan to carry out identification of drinking problem in the villages.

The Government of India introduced the ARWSP in 1972-73 to assist the States and Union Territoties with 100 per cent grants- in-aid to implement drinking water supply scheme in such villages. The Drinking Water Mission (NDWM) was introduced as one of the five Missions in the social sector in 1986. NDWM was renamed as Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission (RGNDWM) in 1991.

Objectives:
  • To ensure coverage of all rural habitations with access to safe drinking water
  • To ensure sustainability of drinking water systems and sources
  • To tackle drinkinf water quality affected habitations
  • To institutionalize the reforms initiatives in the rural drinking water supply sector

Saturday, March 28, 2009

Gandhian Constructive Programme & his Philosophy

Gandhiji Said that constructive programme is the construction of complete independence by truthful & nonviolent means.Gandhian constructive programme is building the new society. According to Gandhi, we need to develop our own truthful & non violent means.

The Gandhian constructive programme organization
The core elements of the constructive programme that Gandhian believed would be necessary for the transformation & liberation of India involved programmes to embody equality, liberate education, make a Gram Swaraj.Gandhian constructive programme organization is give emphasis to :
  1. Sustainable development
  2. Development of Cottage Industry
  3. Antidote to environment problems
  4. Formation of Local Self Govt.
  5. Universalization of Primary Education
  6. Empowering women
  7. Breaking the bridge between tauchable & untouchable
Sustainable development
Sustainability is the core to his development process which appears to be a best viable alternative model of development in the recent yearsAccording to Gandhi, human society must not to exploit more of natural resources for developmentFor him using anything extra is a stealing. According to his philosophy the Gramin swarna swarojogar yojana, national rural employment guaranted scheme, self help groups etc. are some of developmental schemes.

Development of Cottage Industry
The spinning-wheel enables us to identify ourselves among crores. The millionaires imagine that money can bring them anything in the world and according to Mahatma gandhi development of cottage industry is the main way of developing the rural poor of India.According to Gandhi " I would make the spinning-wheel, the foundation on which build a sound village life".

Antidote to environment problems
Today there has been decline in environmental quality due to increasing pollution, loss of biological diversity, excessive concession of biological diversity, excessiveconcession of harmful chemical because of deforestation n & over exploitation of natural resources.According to Gandhi,”There have enough on earth for everybody’s need, but not enough for anybody’s greed.His voice was to save the mother earth from destruction & generate the fruit of real development.

Formation of local self Govt.
The 73rd constitutional amendment act efforts was made to decentralize the power to the Gram Panchayats is a point mark towards the actual dream of Gandhi’s ‘Gram swaraj”.The fundamental concept of Gram Swaraj is that every village should be its own republic, independent.The virtue of “small is beautiful” is always preferred by Gandhi as he visualized the future of India lies in the development of these small villages.


Universalization of Primary Education
Gandhiji regarded education as the light of life & the very source from which was created an awareness of oneness. Gandhian way of education put emphasis on the development of body, mind, heart & soul. His scheme of education he called “Nai Talim” a beautiful blend of craft, art, health & education in one & covers the whole education of the individual till death.His education is more for girls than the boys.

Empowering women
Realizing this virtue of women empowerment he writes man should learn to give place to women & a country or community in which women are not honoured can not be considered as visualized.In India women seats in Panchayati raj is limited as 33%.

Breaking the bridge between tauchable & untouchable
Gandhiji was the first who named untauchables as Harijans . In India the total 22% of populations are ST & 19% SC . So according to Gandhi they are a special part of total population & for all round development.


Differences between Govt. & NGOs

The basis of every Governmental & Non governemental organizations are social. They aim to set up "a society based on equality" and running according to the principles of "Sarvajana Hitaya, sarvajana sukhaya" means progress & prosperity for all. But there have some of differences we found between Govt. & NGO sectors as
  1. NGOs are registered body whereas Government have registering authority
  2. There have office set-up in NGOs but Govt. appoint office staffs according to the will of the authority
  3. NGO bearers can change whereas there have transfer system in the Government sector.
  4. NGOs based on voluntary action but Governmental officers are working for payment
  5. There have non-formal recruitment in NGOs but in the Govt. sector, to select someone it must be approved by the higher authority
  6. NGOs are govern by their own principles and the Govt. offices by the Govt. rules
  7. Management enjoy discretionary privileges in NGOs but the Govt. employees enjoy specific privileges
  8. NGOs are non-profit making where as Govt. is a profit making body
  9. NGO should verified through audit and the Governmental offices are check-listed by its higher authority
  10. NGO s are for social benefits. Funding should be granted & utilized for the common people for immediate action whereas in Govt. there have a future security & pension scheme
  11. NGOs are working with the people whereas Govt. is working for the people
  12. There have no specific time limit to help the people in the NGO sector but in the Govt. sector office bearers must work within a specific time frame

Friday, March 27, 2009

Elective Questions for the MSW Students

Name of the Papers:

I. Social Work Research & Statistical Method

II. Culture, Gender & Feminism in India

III. Social Legislation & Social Security

IV. Civil Society & NGO Management

V. Family & Child Welfare

VI. Rural & Urban Community Development

I. Social Work Research & Statistical Method:

  1. Give an account of the differences in the quantitative & qualitative research?
  2. Discuss the different steps in the formulation of research problem?
  3. Explain briefly the use of different techniques of Sampling followed in Social Science Research?
  4. Discuss the different methods of Data Collection with their merits & demerits in social science research?
  5. What is participatory research? Discuss it meaning, scope & applications?
  6. Monitoring & evaluation can improve the quality of research? Explain with suitable example?
  7. Explain the merits & de-merits of mean, median & mode in statistical data analysis?
  8. Distinguish between mean & standard deviation? Why standard deviation is a better measure of dispersion than mean deviation?
  9. Discuss the quality of regression analysis in social science research?
  10. What is “t” test? Discuss its utility in testing a hypothesis?
  11. Discuss about scientific method? Briefly describe its nature & characteristics?
  12. Briefly describe the salient principle of scientific method?
  13. What do you mean by Research? Classify types of research?
  14. bring out the role of welfare agencies in social work research?

II. Culture, Gender & Feminism in India:

  1. Gender bias is a challenge to social harmony discusss?
  2. Write down the causes of family dis-organization?
  3. Represxentation of body in media should be banned. Comment?
  4. What do you mean by cultural constructs of gender & explain its dimension?
  5. Gender bias is a challenge to women empowerment . comment?
  6. Distinguish between gender & sexuality. What are its implications?
  7. Examine the influence of culture on the status of women & patriarchy?
  8. Define Gender production & reproduction?
  9. Gender inequalities in Orissa context?
  10. Discuss about gender theories?

III. Social Legislation & Social Security:

  1. Discuss social justice as an essential basis of social legislation?
    Or
    Social legislation is aiming to establish social justice , Explain?
  2. Explain the features of the welfare states in the context of social work?
    or
    Explain social legislation in a welfare states?
  3. Describe the fundamental profile/salient features of Indian Constitution?
  4. Give a overview on the Indian Legal System?
  5. What do you mean by social justice cell & Legal Aid?
  6. Discuss the concepts of Civil Rights, Human rights & issues of social justice?
  7. Discuss the changes affected by laws in regard to marriage, divorce & maintenance of spouses & children?
  8. What are the laws protecting interest of women, children & weaker sections?
  9. Discuss about Juvenile delinquency & juvenile justice Act?
  10. Write down a short notes on concept of Public Interest Litigation (PIL)?
  11. What do you meanby social security. Discuss the concept, definition & objectives of social security?
  12. What are the social security measures in India? What are its evolution & salient features?
  13. What do you mean by ILO. What are the role of ILO in social security?
  14. What are the social security measures for unemployment & old age in organized & unorganized sector?
  15. Discuss the legislative provisions regarding provident fund, pension, gratuity & relevant provisions in industrial disputes act?
  16. Discuss social security in “Unorganized Sector”?

IV. Civil society & NGO Management:

  1. Define civil society and discuss the role of civil society organizations in addressing the problem of poverty?
  2. Critically examine the emerging & changed attributes of voluntary action in India?
  3. What are the models & approaches on voluntarism?
  4. Critically examine the Govt.-NGO relationship in India?
  5. Discuss the changing nature of voluntary action in different stages of development in India?
  6. Explain the Gandhian approach of voluntarism?
  7. Discuss the laws governing the voluntary organizations in India?
  8. Discuss the various ethical standards & good practices in the management of NGOs
  9. Explain the project cycle managementof a development programme?
  10. Discuss the voluintary action in different stages of development of society(post & pre independent period)
  11. Briefly describe about funding agencies. Narrate types & patterns of funding?What are the emerging challenges & responses, role of professional social worker in voluntary action & organization?

V. Family & Child Welfare (elective):

  1. What do you mean by family. Describe its importance & function for individual & social welfare.
  2. Describe about Indian family. Narrate its characteristics, needs& problem impact?
    What are the recent changes on Indian family?
  3. Briefly discuss the causes of family disorganization & emerging problems?
  4. What do you mean by crime. What are the problems & types of crime & causes of crime?
  5. Give a brief idea about alcoholism & substance abuse?
  6. What are the existing policies, laws & programmes related to family?
  7. Discuss the evolution of social eork practice in the area of family welfare?
  8. Short notes on:
    a. Counselling
    b. Crisis intervention
    c. Social support & networking
    d. Family life education
    e. Family health
    f. Advacacy & SHGs

VI. Rural & Urban Community Development (elective):

1. Discuss the programme of target based & area based approach in community development?

2.. Discuss about Panchayat Raj system in India?

3. Five your personal outlook on the growth of slums, causes & consequences?What are the programmes for slum development?

4. Discuss about the concept of cooperation. What is the role of co-operative societies India?

5. What is the role of social worker in social change in rural & urban areas?

6. What do you mean by Community. Briefly describe the characteristics of rural & urban community?

7. What do you mean by CDP.Analyse different approaches of CDP?

Tuesday, March 24, 2009

Maintenance of Record in Social Work Research

Record is a storing of data either in written form or in video. It may be written in form or not but has used as prove/evidence of any incidents.

Definition:
Chamber Dictionary defines record as “act of setting down in writing or other permanent form, a formal writing of any fact or proceeding, a book of such writing.”

Objective:
  • To improve the professional skills & techniques of workers
  • To evaluate the work of the agency & to improve upon methods & techniques used therein
  • To create satisfaction & keep up the interest of the workers
  • To build a body of knowledge of social work administration
  • To facilitate supervision & training
  • To show the progress of the agency to the board, community, public authorities etc.
  • To ensure continuing of work & keep a note thereof
  • To do work on a systematic basis
Types of Records:
  1. Organizational Records
  2. Programme Records
  3. Administrative Records
  4. Procedural Records
  5. Financial Records
  6. General Records
1. Organizational Records
  • Registration Certificate
  • Copy of the constitution, Bye-laws of the agency
  • Agenda Papers
  • Minute books/register
  • Returns to field with the registrar of society
  • Register of board members with their address
  • Resolutions for formulation of the committees, sub-committees & record of their work
2. Programme Records
  • Blue print of the agency’s plan of work of the scheme
  • Case histories in case work process
  • Survey report of the community
  • Diary of field work
  • Attendance register for programme staff
  • Register of volunteers
  • Visitor’s book
3. Administrative Records
  • Personal files of staff members
  • Attendance register
  • Leave record
  • Telephone calls register
  • Building plan file, sanctioned plan
  • File for each branch
4. Procedural records
  • Diary
  • Dispatch Register
  • Register of files
  • Reminder register
  • Recording register
5. Financial Register
  • Budget File
  • Case book
  • Receipt & bill Books
  • Voucher file
  • Salary register
  • Stock register
  • Property register
6. General Records
  • Annual Report
  • File containing material for the annual report
  • For the next year
  • List of address of agency’s contacts

Tuesday, March 17, 2009

Watershed Development Programme for the Rural Poor

Watershed is an independent Hydrological unit. It can be defined as the drainage basin or catchment area of a particular stream or river. It refers to the area from where the water come to a particular drain, like a river or stream. A Watershed may be small, consisting of a few hectares or huge, covering several thousands of hectares.


Watershed refers to the conservation, regeneration and the judicious use of human and natural (land, water, plants, animals) resources within a particular watershed. Watershed development attempts to bring about the best possible balance in the environment between natural resources on one side and man and gazing animals on the other. It requires people’s participation because conservation is possible only through the whole hearted involvement of the entire community.

Components/sectors of Watershed Development:
  • Human resource development (Community development)
  • Soil and land management (Conservation and use)
  • Water management (conservation and use)
  • Afforestation
  • Pasture (fodder) development
  • Agricultural development
  • Livestock management
  • Rural energy management
Why Watershed Development:
Activities of man like deforestation, wrong framing techniques, livestock over-grazing and faulty land use lead to the destruction of plant and tree cover exposing the earth to the natural forces like heavy rains, direct sunshine and high velocity winds. It give raise to soil erosion, floods or water scarcity. Agricultural yield is lowered and this results in decline in the income levels of the community resulting poverty and eventually leading to migration of labour from rural to urban areas in search of livelihood.

Watershed development therefore not only to generate environment but also manage the needs of human community. Human beings and their activities are the root cause of environmental destruction and the preservation of environment is only the responsibility of all inhabitants.

Sunday, March 15, 2009

Philosophy of Bhakti Movement

Bhakti Movement constitutes a very important chapter in the socio-cultural history of India. The movement started in 9th Century A.D by Shankaracharya which continued upto 16th century A.D by a number of Hindu Devotees, preachers & social reforms.

The word Bhakti is a very familiar word in the Hindu religious system. It’s derived from the Sanskrit word Bhaja which means “to Utter”. Some other said its meaning as 'to adore or to love' with honour. Thus in general sense Bhakti means “Devotion to God”.

The philosophy of Bhakti Movement:

  • Bhaki movement centred round monotheism or the worship of one God. Ram & Rahim, Iswar & Allah are same but different names of one God that is the Supreme God.
  • It give emphasis to bhakta or devotion to God as the only means to achieve Salvation.
  • A true Guru is the main source to attain God. She/he alone can show the path of light to reach in the proper destination.
  • Equality among men or universal brotherhood is another cardinal philosophy of the Bhakti movement.

Wednesday, March 11, 2009

The Consumer Protection Act 1986

 
Meaning of Consumer
Consumer Protection Act is meant for ordinary consumers. It help consumers to get their rights, quality goods in affordable price without any delay.




Any person who
  • buys any goods for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid & partly promised, or under any system of deferred payment & user of such goods.
  • get services for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid & partly promised, or under any system of deferred payment & includes & beneficiaries of such services.
Extent
The Consumer Protection Act extends to all parts except Jammu & Kashmir.

Consumer protection Act 1986
This Act provides for better protection of interest of Consumers & for that purpose to make provision for establishment of consumer councils & other authorities for the settlement of consumer councils & other authorities for the settlement of consumer disputes & for matters concerned with the Consumer rights.

This Act has been passed to protect the interest of Consumers. This Act shall apply to tall goods & services.

The Central Consumer Protection Council
The Central Government by notification, has established the provision for Consumer Protection Council referred to us as the Central Council.

The following members are the Office bearer of the Central Consumer Protection Council
  1. The Minister in charge of Consumer Protection Officer of the Centre, who shall be its chairman
  2. Such numbers of other official or non-official members representing such interest as may be prescribed by the Council
  3. Procedure for the meeting of the Central Council
    The Central Council shall meet as & where necessary, but at least one meeting of the council shall be held in every year
  4. The Central Council shall meet at such time & place as the Chairman may think fit & shall observe such procedure on regards to the transaction of this business as per the requirement.

The State Consumer Protection Council
The State Government by notification set-up the probhision of State Consumer Protection Council. The State Council is consisting of the Minister in charge of Consumer affairs of the State who should be the Chairman.

The District Consumer Protection Council
The State has provision for establishing Consumer Protection Council at the District level by the Government Gazetted Notification, which is known as DCPC. The District Collector of the District must be the Chairman.

Objective of the Central/State/District Protection Council
The objective of the Central Council shall be
  • to promote & protect the rights of the Consumers
  • to be protected against the marketing of the goods & services which are hazardous to life & property.
  • to be inform about the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard & price of goods for services as the case may be so as to protect the consumer against unfair trained practices.
  • to be assured wherever possible, access to a varieties of goods, services at comparative prices
  • to be heared & to be assured the consumers interest will received due consideration in appropriate forum
  • to seek redressal against unfair trade practices or respective trade practice
  • to get Consumer Education
The Rural Consumers
The poor, marginalized and the consumers from rural areas, who are the largest group of consumers (estimated at over 700 Million out of the 1 Billion population of the Country).

Sunday, March 8, 2009

Status of Women

Women for centuries have been subjected to humiliation of one sort of the other. They were treated like ‘ Dependent’ through out their life.

The persistence in India of cultural practices that discriminate against girls & women means not only the abuse of but, finally the deaths of countless women. The girl child faces a hostile environment even in the womb.

If a girl child is lucky enough to be born, she experience discrimination in her infant. Studies have been shown as 12% mortality rate among girls under one year old and 8% morality rate amongst girl under five years old. Sexual abuse of girl & women in families is common because both she & her families has considered to have been shamed. Only rarely have rape cases come to public notice.

Most Indian girls are married between the ages of 16 to 20. they have to perform the role of wife, daughter- in law & mother. The model wife is taught that she must be ready to sacrifice her life for the honor of her husband & her family name.

The problem of women trafficking, prostitution & sexual abuse has existed for a long time but has been aggravated in modern time due to increase in economic & social stress caused by rapid Industrialization, break up of community life & changes in value system.

  • A Unicef report said that in every 26 minutes a women is molested.
  • In every 34 minutes a rape takes place.
  • In every 42 minutes a sexual harassment incident occurs.
  • In every 43 minutes a women is kidnapped. And in every 93 minutes a women is burnt to death over dowry.

Out of the total population, 120 million are women who live in a object poverty. From a global perspective, India accounts for 19% of all live births & 27% of all maternal deaths. The death of young girls in India exceeds those of young boys by over 3,00,000 each year & every 6th infant death is specifically due to gender discrimination.

In India only 32% female are getting higher education where its 68% in case of male. A Unicef report say that 7,000 female babies are eliminated in India each day.

According to the economist & winner of Nobel prize Mr. Amartya sen (in 1990), only in south Asian country there have 50 million women are missing, getting willed, suffering as victims or surviving the violence.
So there have no means to celebrate the Women's Day, if we don't bring any positive changes & give smile to the women.


Wednesday, March 4, 2009

Panchayat Raj system in India

Every Village is consisting of numbers communities which has regulated by the Village Panchayat. All problems of a community have discuss in the Panchayat & the decision of the Panch is consider as final. Panchayat members are the representatives of the public whose main aim is to evolve a system of democratic decentralization and people’s participation with a view to ensuring rapid, speedier socio-economic progress and provide adequate justice.

Before the Panchayat Raj concept, the decision makers made plan in the Central Level for the villagers according to their own experience & own point of view. So they didn’t made appropriate decisions. That’s why the Panchayati Raj concept had originated. The local people well known the actual problem of their locality & make plan for their own betterment.

So in 1993, the Government of India passed a series of constitutional reforms to democratise and empower local political bodies – the Panchayats. According to the 73rd Amendment in every districts, sub-districts and the village level institutions as Panchayat Raj Institutions is working in rural areas.

Definition:
According to Mahatma Gandhi,“Indian Independence must be at the bottom and every village ought to be a Republic with Panchayat, having powers.”

The Panchayat Raj system has a three-tier structure as:
(i) the Village Panchayats
(ii) the Panchayat Samitis and
(iii) the Zila Parishad

(i) The Village Panchayat or Gram Panchayat : The village panchayat or the gram Panchayat functions at the Village level.
(ii) Panchayat Samiti : The panchayat samiti is the main executive body which operates at the Block level.
(iii) Zila Parishad : The Zila Parishad functions at the districts level and is responsible for making executing and coordinating the programmes of rural development.


Aim of the Village Panchayat:
1. Three Tier system of PanchayatRaj for all States having population over 20 Lakhs
2. Panchayat elections to be held regularly every 5 Years
3. Reservation of seats for Schedule Castes, Schedule Tribes and Women
4. Election must be according to the rule of Central Election Commissioner
5. Empower the local people
6. Preservation of their natural resources
7. Their participation in the local level to reduce social evils as Dowry system, Domestic Violence & Alcoholism



Sunday, March 1, 2009

Feminist Movement in India

The Feminist Movement was started as a reform movement in the classical liberal movement for a liberalise society. Before 1832, according to the English Common Law, when a marriage held, the husband  & wife became one  & rights of women became merge within her husband’s right. The women have no personal right.

The Marry Wollston Craft, the first Feminist, who demanded her right from her husband. She fight for existing of women. That is the first expression of feminsm.  1829 is the first way to start Feminist movement in India.

Marriage is called as a socially sanctioned sex relationship between man & women. In every family there have a division of power, from which strong part goes to the male as protector & the female & children are under the protection of male.

This is the natural hierarchy for which the Feminists fighting for. Feminists fights for celebracy & equality where sexual relationship must be free love making. It shouldn’t have any obligation or duty.

The Main Purpose of Feminist Movement is to provide women
  • Right to fair Wage
  • Right to marriage or Divorce at will
  • Property right for both man & women
  • Right to vote
  • Liberate women
  • Provide equal status to women
Types of Feminists
  1. Liberal or Moderate Feminist
  2. Socialistic Feminist
  3. Radical Feminist
  4. Marxist Feminist
Feminism & Nationalism
Sarojini Naidu’s Presidential address to the All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) in Bombay in 1930, she addressed that, ”We are not weak, timid, meek women, we hold the courageous Savitri as our ideal, we join how Sita keep her Chastity.”

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi addressed the All India Women’s Conference in 1980 she said, “I have often said that, I am not a Feminist, yet, in my concern for the unprivileged, how can i ignore women who, since the beginning of History, have been dominated over & discriminated against in social custom & in-laws. We need women to be more interested, more alive & more active, not because they are women, but because they do comprise half the human race.”

Feminist movement in India
In the end of the nineteenth century, women in India suffered from disabilities like Child Marriage, practice of Polygyny, sale of Girls for marriage purposes, severe restrictions on widows, non-access to education & restricting oneself to domestic & child rearing functions.

There have some Great Reformers in this Movement who raised their voice against Child Marriage, practice of Polygyny, Puradah system, right of widpw to remarry, fought for the right of inheritence for the women, pleaded for educating women & to treat daughter & sons equally. This Reformers are :
  • Justice Ranade
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  • Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar
  • Mahatma Gandhi
The Feminist Movement & the steps for women empowerment
  • Economic Planning & Policies for Indian Women: A Historical Analysis
  • Land Legislation
  • Health & Family welfare policies
  • Educational Policies
  • Gender Policy for the empowerment of Women-2001
  • Economi empowerment of women
  • Science & technology
  • Violence against women
  • Operational strategies
  • Institutional mechanism
  • Resource management
  • Legislation
  • Panchayat Raj Institution
  • Partnership with Voluntary Organization
  • Growth of women agencies