Thursday, February 26, 2009

NGO & its Management

Every day we come across committees in business, industry, welfare & voluntary organizations which are being run by the lay citizens.
 This elements are very necessary in social work which aims at helping people to help themselves.

Meaning of NGO
NGO we means the Non Governmental Organization. Generally NGO means, a group of people representing from Civil Society back ground, thinking to stand united for common interest of specific problems of the people in the locality, May get registered their vision under the society Act.

Types of NGO
  • The NGOs only provides social service
  • Fund raising NGOs
  • NGOs work with Government
Basic Components of an NGO
  1. General body
  2. Managing/Executive Committee
  3. Office Bearer
  4. Legal Advisor
  5. Purchasing Committee
1. General Body
A General Body consists of general members of the organization enrolled according to the provisions of the Constitution of the agency.
Some of the main functions of the General Body
  • Policy making or legislative functions
  • Control over raising & utilization of Funds
  • Election of the office bearer & the members of the executive
  • Approval of Annual Budget
  • Appointing auditors
  • Approve Annual Plan of Action
2. Managing Committee
The managing/executive committee is elected by the general body according to the agency’s rules & regulations. It performs all the functions for the day-to-day affairs of an agency. Its tenure is fixed according to agency’s rule . It’s always answerable to the general body.

3. Office bearer
In order to manage the activities of the organization & strive to materialize the objective of the organization, there is a need of folding different technical & non-technical course in the same organization. The office bearers consists of President, Vice President, Secretary/General Secretary, Joint/Assistant Secretary, Treasurer & an Auditor.

4. Legal Advisor
Legal advisor is a person being chosen either from among the group members or from outside source as legal advisor to the organization. The person in charge for giving Legal Advice looks after some legal aspects & dimensions, while holding any Plans & Programmes undertaken by the organization to make it more legalized. She/he also provide legal support service in-favor of the organization, if it’s necessary.

5. Purchasing Committee
A Purchasing Committee consists of a accountants, programme co-ordinator & representative from the Donor Agency or from governing body members is normally set-up. This committee looks after to mobilize quotations from the suppliers/certified agencies to provide specific goods which are needed by the organization certifying the budgetary provisions.

Basic Activities perform by an NGO
  • Annual General Body Meeting
  • Make Annual Action Plan
  • Approve Annual Budget 

    Monday, February 23, 2009

    Kendu Leaves "A Livelihood Support"

    Kendu Leaves provides livelihood to millions in the western and southern parts of Odisha. It provides hard cash by creating employment opportunities for tribals , harijans and other landless people during summer when there is hardly any agricultural work or any possibilities of wage work. This income is of special importance to the farmers as it provides them the wherewithal to buy inputs for the next agricultural operation.

    Most of the kendu plants growing areas are situated in the former princely States of Odisha. KL operation is carried out in an area of 6 lakh hectares in 23 districts with Angul, Bolangir, Koraput, Kandhamal, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Nawrangpur, Sambalpur & Sundergarh being the major KL producing districts. It creats more than 15 million persondays of work every season. Odisha is a largest producer of processed KL after Madhya Pradesh.

    Inorder to regulate KL trade, the State government declared Kendu Leaves (Control and Distribution) Order, 1949. The main purpose is to survive the Kendu Trade & the quality of the leaves did not go down. The most important legislation guiding KL trade has been the Odisha KL (Control of Trade) Act, 1961, which tried to regulate the trade. After the nationalization in 1973, collection and trading of Kendu leaf is being carried out entirely by the State government.

    Sunday, February 22, 2009

    Formation of SHG to Empower Women

    The Self Helf Groups (SHGs) are helping more than 17 million women in the rural areas & make them self reliant. The SHGs of rural women consists of membera who are the poor, having low saving capacity and who depend on money lenders for meeting their daily needs and social obligations. SHGs are small voluntary associations of poor women, preferably from the same socio-economic background.

    They come together for the purpose of solving their common problems. The SHGs significantly contribute to the empowerment of the poor women & meant for reaching the un reached & particularly the poorest among the poor. Women in SHGs have been encouraged by the government as well as NGOs to undertake self employment ventures with locally available resources. SHG is called as a suitable means for the empowerment of women.

    Rules for formation of SHG :
    • The number of members should between 10-20
    • Only one member per family to be covered in the SHG
    • Weekly meeting on a fixed day & time should be made compulsory
    • All the transactions & discussions should be made compulsory
    • All the transactions & discussions should be done in the meeting only
    • For the first 3 months emphasis should be on regularly of meeting, 100% participation, regular saving & regular deposit in the bank & book writing
    • Between 3-6 months a SHG concept training has to be arranged for all the members
    • Grading is compulsory before linkage
    • An SHG has completed six months is functioning well & shouldn’t be deprived of Bank loan for long
    • Participation of bank officials in the SHG meeting at least once in 3 months is essential for maintaining the quality of SHG
    • The SC/ST & OBC constituted 83% of the total sample
    • It is called as a small saving group

      Saturday, February 21, 2009

      aam aadmi Budget 2009-10

      The acting Finance Minister Mr. Pranab Mukherjee presented the aam aadmi Budget of Rs. 953,231 crore where there have a outlays of Rs. 1,49,317 crore for the Social Sector.

      • In the farm sector the credit disbursement increased to 2,50,000 crore. To strengthen short-term cooperative credit Rs. 13,500 crore being implemented in 25 States. There have also provision of short-term loans up to Rs. 3 lakh at 7 pc interest rate.
      • For the basic livelihood support, Bharat Nirman Scheme gets Rs. 40,900 cr.
      • NREGS get Rs. 30,100 crore.
      • For the development of Rural Roads under the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RDFI), govt. allocate 14,600 crore.
      • There have a allocation of 11,842 crore for Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission.
      • Rs. 312 crore allocated to set up 6,000 Model Schools at Block Level.
      • For the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) Budget earmarked Rs. 1,143.64 crore.
      • For the smooth functioning of Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS), Govt. allocated 6, 705 crore.
      • Under Public Private Partnership (PPP), Govt. earmark 67, 700 crore.
      • Mead Day Meal Scheme get 8,000 crore.

        The Employees Provident Fund Act, 1952

        The Employees Provident Fund Act, 1952 had passed with a view to making some provisions for the future of the employees after her/his retirement or for her/his dependants in case of early death & inculcating the habit of saving among the workers. This Act was framed under section 5 of the Act, which came into force 1st November 1952.

        Amendment of the Act
        This Act was amended in 1976 with a view to introducing employees deposit linked insurance scheme, a measure to provide an insurance cover to the members of the provident fund with out the payment of any premium by these members. Further the Act was amended in 1995 providing for employees pension scheme.

        Objective of the Act
        • To provide substantial security & timely monetary assistance to employees & to their families
        • To protect them in old age, disablement & at the time of early death
        Under the scheme, a member may withdraw the full amount standing to her/his credit in the fund in the event of:
        1. Retirement from service after attaining the age of 60 years
        2. Retirement on account of permanent & total incapacity
        3. Migration from India for permanent settlement abroad & the membership for this purpose is reckoned from time of joining the covered establishment till the date of the settlement of the claim.
        Some major initiatives for the withdrawal of fund
        • Financing of life insurance policies
        • House building
        • Purchasing shares of consumers co-operative credit housing societies
        • During temporary closure of establishments
        • Illness of family members
        • Member’s own marriage or for the marriage of her/his sister, brother or daughter/son & post matriculation education of children
        • In case of damages to movable & immovable property of members due to a calamity of exceptional nature
        • Grant in advance to members who are physically handicap for the purchase of equipment

          Sunday, February 15, 2009

          The concept of Untauchability & the Civil Rights

          Untauchability is a term which is deep rooted in our society from the Later Vedic period when the greatest law giver Manu ruled over India. Within his era the concept untauchability & superiority of Brahmins came in front of society. According to him Brahmans are the purest part of Brhma & the whole world is only for them & others are called untouchable & the slave of Brahmins.

          Under Article 17 of the Indian Constitution, untauchability is abolished & its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any ability arising out of untauchability shall be an offence punishable in accordance with the law. Besides the Civil Rights Act 1976, the Indian Parliament also enacted the SC & ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989 in order to prevent the offence of atrocities against the SC/ST & to provide Special Courts for trial.

          The Anti Mining Dharana comes about a year in many parts of the State of Odisha, specially in Kalahandi Dist. where the place of worship be leased out in the name of Industrialization. For the tribals, Niyamgiri Hill is not only ecologically fragile but is the source of livelihood for around 8,000 of people living in 112 villages.

          Like that in many areas in India we found exploitation & suppression against the tribals which should be go against of Civil Rights and Human Rights of thousands of people in the Country. So more implementation of law & order is necessary to take immediate steps to save the civil rights of the tribals.

          Thursday, February 12, 2009

          Drugs & Alcohol, the direct cause of Crime & Violence

          The study is of critical importance to India, where smoking is responsible for about one in 20 deaths of woman & one in five deaths of man in the age group of 30-69 years. By 2010, it has estimated that smoking will lead to one million death in the country.

          Drugs & Alcohol are positively correlated with crime & violence against women (VAW). Alcoholism raises violence & consequently family disintegration. There are some incidents where the father raped his daughter under the influence of alcohol.

          The most common form of violence world wide is wife battering, which is the direct result of alcoholism. According to the 1995 record, there have 3,764 offences that accounted 22.7% of the total reported drug related offences in India. Alcohol is also the cause of Schizophrenia, TB & Cancer.

          Basic Sanitation & control over Pollution

          Today more than 2 billion people around the world lack access to basic sanitation services. An estimated 42,000 people die every week from absence of adequate sanitation, according to Ban Ki Moon, the UN Secretary General. Every day over 30,000 trucks carry iron ore to Paradeep port in Odisha.

          More than 200 people die every year in this exhaustive process of mining. The resultant dust & noise force thousands of people. Due to lack of control over environment, there have natural disasters increase day by day. By an investigation it estimate that on October, 2005, in Jammu & Kashmir and North part of Pakistan there have more than 78,000 people were died due to earth quack.

          The draught  flood in Odisha every year killed thousands of people & their habitats. Though there have so many plan & programmes implemented in different states to control pollution & maintain proper sanitation all are remaining only in paper.

          Monday, February 9, 2009

          New Strategy to tackle HIV/AIDS in Odisha

          Koraput district in Odisha is all set to become the Fourth Health Institution in the State to offer Anti Retorviral Therapy (ARTS) services to the HIV infected persons. In Odisha there have 11,436 HIV infected people have been identified by the end of November 2008.

          State have also plan to open four more ART Centres at Angul, Balesore, Balanhir & Bhubaneswar. Presently, ART centres are functional at SCB Medical College & Hospital Cuttack, MKCGMCH at Berhampur & the recently VSSMCH at Burla.

          Sunday, February 8, 2009

          Laws related to Family

          Family is defined as a group of persons of both sexes, related by marriage, blood or adoption performing roles based on age, sex 7 relationship. Family generally consists of people living together having Blood relationship, their mentality may be same or different but they share same kitchen.

          Laws  related to Family
          With the change of time the principles & ethics of every family has change. Today the family problems are extended in such a manner that the existing rules are quite looking limited to provide services to the family. So there have much laws has been implemented
          for the betterment of the family. They are:
          • Legislative Provisions
          • Constitutional Provisions
          • Special Plan & Policies relating to family
          Legislative Provisions
          1. Indian Succession Act – 1925
          2. Special Marriage Act – 1954
          3. Hindu Marriage Act – 1955
          4. Hindu Succession Act – 1956
          5. EPF Act – 1957
          6. Dowry prohibition Act – 1961
          7. Maternity Benefit Act – 1961
          8. MTP Act - 1971
          9. GPF Act – 1987
          10. PNDT Act - 1994
          11. Old Age Pension Scheme – 1995
          Constitutional Provisions
          Aricle 14 – Equality before Law
          Aricle 15 (3) – A State should make Special Provisions in favour of Women & Children
          Aricle 16 – Equality of opportunity relating to employment
          Aricle 21 – Right to life & personal liberty of every individual
          Aricle 39 – Both man & woman equally have the right to an adequate means of livelihood
          Aricle 42 – State shall make provisions for just & human conditions of work & maternity relief
          Aricle 45 – Free & compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years
          Aricle 47 – Raise the level of nutrition & standard of living of its people & the improvement of Public Health
          Aricle 48 – State shall endeavour to organise agriculture & animal husbandry on modern scientific lines
          Aricle 243 – Not less than one-third of the total number of offices of chairpersons in the Panchayat should be reserved for women

          Special Plan & Policies relating to family
          1. National Population Policy – 2000
          2. Health & Family Welfare Policy
          3. National Rural Health Mission
          4. Universalising ICDS
          5. Major initiatives like Asha
          6. Family Counseling Centre

          1. National Population Policy – 2000
          On 15th February, 2000 the Government of India announced a new population policy. The salient promotional & motivational measures in the NPP-2000 link disbursement of awards under the Rural development department’s maternity benefit schemes, antenatal check-up, delivery by trained persons, birth registration & BCG Immunization. Other initiatives includes insurance provision schemes for couples who are below the poverty line, registration of marriage & acceptance of small family norms & adoption of the terminal method after the birth of the second child.

          2. Health & Family Welfare Policy
          India’s health situation points unequivocally to two large population groups who are especially vulnerable to disease & death as women & children. The First Five Tear Plan initiated the establishment of sub-centres (one for every 5,ooo people) & Primary health Centres at the Block Level. In the Second Five Year Plan, MCH services became an integral part of the overall health services in rural areas. MCH was transferred to the department of Family Planning, Instead of doing the reverse.

          3. National Rural Health Mission
          With the launch of the Mission, initiatives have been set in motion to effectively improve access to quality health care of people, especially those residing in rural areas, the poor, women & children during the period 2005-12, the mission seeks to halve infant mortality rate from 60 to 30 per thousand live births, reduce total fertility rate from 3 to 2.1, bring down maternity mortality to 100 from over 300 per Lakh, reduce prevalence of diseases covered under the National Programme for disease control.

          4. Universalising ICDS
          The Government has sanctioned 2.95 Lakh Anganwadi Centres & 25,961 Mini Anganwadi Centres in two phases as parts of its commitment to ensure an Anganwadi Centres in every habitations, as per the existing population norms of one center for a population of 1,000 (700 for Tribal/Hilly/Desert Areas) during the 11th Plan period for reach out to all children below Six years of age, pregnant women & lactating mothers.

          5. Major initiatives like Asha
          A voluntary trained Community Health Worker in every village in 18 demographically weaker states (4.35 Lakh Ashasd have been already selected & cover 2 Lakh trained), selection of over 90,000 link workers, provision of an additional ANM at all Health Sub-Centres to provide better health facilities to women, children & family.

          6. Family Counselling Centre
          Orissa Government has set-up 30 Family Counseling Centres (FCCs) in 30 Districts, whose main aim is to provide adequate support services & guidance to the family members, spouse when they have any family problem. It helps to aware family members about their rights and present laws to protect their Human Rights.

          Friday, February 6, 2009

          The Concept of Globalization & India

          India is now in a developing stage get released from the term 3rd World Country. Between few years it became develop so much that it tries to get fame &  position in other countries, in socio, economic & other fields. So it make hand with other nations worldwide.

          The concept of Globalization
          Globalization we means, make a place in international market in the socio, economic  political field. The concept of Globalization came into existence by the formulation of new industrial policy in 1991. In this year, Mr. Manmohan singh introduced the concept of Globalization, privatization of all sectors, when he was the Finance Minister. He want free flow of marketing and want to bring all Nations within one Umbrella.

          The main Features of Globalization
          1. Adjustment of Indian economy with World economy
          2. Conversion of National market to International ones, which will facilitate free mobility of capital, labour & consumer goods.
          3. It’s called market reform policy, which is otherwise known as Manmohan economics or Manmohanics. It replaces socialistic pattern of society.

          The positive side of Globalization
          • Dismentaling of Industrial licensing system
          • Invitation & propmotion of foreign capital
          • Partial privatization of public sector
          • Making various sectors of Indian economy comperative on Global Scale
          • Provides an opportunity to learn from others to excel
          • Generate more Income & Employment
          • Provides opportunity for Direct Foreign Investment (DFI)
          • Provide opportunities for Industries to produce cost effective product
          • Removes the monopoly practices & rigidity in socio-economic system
          • Reduce the concept of dualism & dichotomy
          Adverse side of Globalization
          • Give raise to degradation of Local Industries
          • Leads to exploitation by the foreign market
          • Globalization is a challenge to Gandhian concept of economy
          • Loss Governmental autonomy
          • Give raise to scam & scandal

            People with Disability

            According to the Human Rights estimation, there are about 60 million disabled persons, in the country belonging to various categories include blind, deaf, dumb, physically handicapped, mentally retarded and the mentally ill. In the Indian Context, the disabled suffer from social stigma of various degrees. The mental health Act of 1993 hasn’t came into force in all states. The parliament adopted the Persons with Disabilities Act in 1995.

            While there have reservation, as seats in the Universities, schools but it’s very less in numbers. There have no any separate provisions for them in the country. Therefore the legislation largely remains merely on paper, despite its coming into force on 7th February, 1996. So the Indian Legislation most keep its eye to provide more basic rights to the persons with Disabled.

            Thursday, February 5, 2009

            Professionalization of Social Work across the World

            Social Work is a recent branch of knowledge. It is a welfare activity based on humanitarian philosophy, scientific knowledge & technical skill for helping individual, groups or communities to live a better life.

            Historically, social work done through charity, philanthropy, mutual aids etc. but due to Industrialization, Urbanization, there have numbers of social problem arises. So the traditional social work concept change its shape to Professional Social Work.

            Professionalization of Social Work in Indian Context
            The first school of social work set up in Bombay in 1936. It was named as sir Dourabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work. Than There have many Institutions opened in India like the Delhi School of Social Work in Delhi, Kashi Vidyapitha in Varanasi & Social School in Baroda. In Orissa, The first school of Social Work introduced in the institute of Niswas.Than the others as Viswas, CSSR, IMS TISS, TACT etc. are set up.

            These Institutions are setup to provide basic skill, knowledge, techniques and methods of Social Work. It make any social worker expert in a specific field to tackle & solve social problems.

            Need of Professional Social Work

            1. To acceptance of individual dignity
            2. To provide social assistance & security
            3. To achieve social goals in a professional manner
            4. To establish networking for proper development of community people
            1. For acceptance of individual dignity
            Individual being the unit of society, occupies paramount importance. Every individual possessing some capacity, having some worth & dignity. But that capabilities are identifies only by a professional social worker who is really expert in understanding people’s feelings & techniques and identify others dignity. Only a professional social worker can identify individual’s dignity & make them self reliant according to their capacity.

            2. To provide social assistance & security
            Social work aims to realize a decent standard of living, social security & fulfillment of Universal human needs. It provides assistance to the individual, groups & communities. Professional Social Workers are now trained on these methods. They have knowledge about Human Rights, RTI, Legal Justice & they have the capacity to reduce social problems & social evils.

            3. To achieve social goals in a professional manner
            Professionalism is the expertness characteristic of a person or organization with a conscious aware of the role, image, skill, knowledge & commitment to quality & client oriented services. In other words, professionalism is focused accountable, confident, complete motivation towards particular goal with respect for hierarchy and humanity with less emotion.

            4. To establish networking for proper development of community people
            A Professional Social Worker have that skill & knowledge that she/he can make a interlinkage with other Organizations, Institutions for granting support as kind or cash. It can help her/him to guide an individual in a proper manner.

            Professionalization of Social Work is a need of Society because it posesses following duties
            1. A professional social worker is a tested body of knowledge, consisting of techniques & methods communicate through training & educational discipline which shouldn’t only be academic but practical in nature.
            2. There have Standardize trainings, jobs & services in the social work profession
            3. It build-up sense of belonging group consciousness & responsibilities, professional ethics for every professional
            4. Profession should provide professional value with continued occupation
            5. It make responsible to social worker for public interest and work towards social ends
            6. The goal should be the welfare of the people improved human relation, built on understanding & tolerance.

            Disaster Preparedness by the State

            The Rs 441 crore National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP) would get underway in Orissa beginning April. Project period for NCRMP would be from 2009-10 to 2011-12. While this project is estimated at Rs 441 crore with a Central share of 75 percent, the State will bear 25 percent.

            The State Government is already making a budgetary provision of Rs 33 crore for the fiscal 2009-10. With a Central With the World Bank Mission team comprises nine members, it will go a long way in Strengthening Disaster preparedness of the State.

            (News from Indian Express)

            TRIPTI a Poverty Reduction Programme for the Costal Districts of Orissa

            The State Government signed a tripartite agreement with the World Bank and the Government of India for a soft loan of $82 million (Rs. 400 crore approximately) for the Targeted Rural Initiative for Poverty Termination and Infrastructure (TRIPTI), a poverty reduction programme.
            This livelihood project will be implemented in 38 Blocks of 10 Costal Districts through Mission Shakti which will cover over 12.50 lakh families in 8369 villages of 1020 Gram Panchayats in the TRIPTI Blocks, said the Project Director Usha Padhee.

            (News from Indian Express)