Saturday, January 31, 2009

Sampling Methods use in Social Research

When a small group has taken as a representative of the whole, it’s called as sampling. It’s the small unit which make a good use in analysis of research finding.

Types of Sampling:

  1. Random Sampling
  2. Lottery Sampling
  3. Sequential Sampling
  4. Grid Sampling
  5. Biased Sampling
  6. Stratified Sampling
  7. Quota Sampling
  8. Multistage Sampling
  9. Convenience Sampling
  10. Self-selected Sampling

1. Random Sampling
It’s called as the proportional sampling. It assures each individual or elements in the universe has equal chance of being selected or choosed research unit. It’s a popular method in statistics to justify the method of research.

2. Lottery Sampling

Some time it’s impossible to cover all the area, so the researcher may do the lottery system to select a particular area for her/his research designing.

3. Sequential sampling
The scholar collects the sequential list to select her/his samples. In a sequence if a number is more samples are drawn from that sequence. Usually alphabetical order dominate in sequential sampling.

4. Grid sampling
Grid sampling refers to election of a particular area from the total Universe. In such a method of sampling the entire universe is divided into different greed and segments and the scholar prepares a map of the entire universe and places the greed in that map out of which he selects her/his samples for study & research.

5. Biased sampling
Biased sampling means a researcher selects the samples according to her/his choice and is free to choose one & reject the other.

6. Stratified sampling
It includes both perpessive and random sampling. Strata implies groups. The entire universe is divided into different groups or strata and samples are done from each group or strata.

7. Quota sampling
Quota sampling is a type of perpessive sampling, the entire universe is divided into different groups, strata or physical regions and from each group, strata or region we draws specific samples according to our quota that means, selection must be according to the need of the area.

8. Multi-stage sampling
The universe is always very large and there must be a proper parameter to select samples, which adequately represents the universe. For that purpose we divide the total universe into different stages and accordingly we select samples.

9. Convenience sampling
Where the universe isn’t very clear to understand for research, the researcher use this type off sampling.

10. Self-selected sampling
Selection is done by the people. In such cases the researcher needn’t go to the respondents, rather the respondent run after the researcher for selection.

Gender bias in Language, culture & Theory

Gender bias, the term is so deep rooted in our society that it’s quite impossible to drive out from the society. In every field it may be social, political, economic or cultural field we found a small or large discrimination among man & woman.

Meaning of Gender:
Either the male or female called as gender according to her/his social and cultural role & responsibility within the society.

Definition of Gender:
Manu said, “The father protects a women in her childhood, husband during her youth, her son in old age; a woman is never fit for Independence.”

Meaning of Gender Bias;
Gender bias relates to the discrimination among male and female.
The bias ness between the gender is expressed in language, culture & theory. The power which defines the language to be used, culture to be maintained and the theoretical discourse used in the exclusion of man and woman.

Gender bias in Language:

  • Language is a very powerful elements, which has used by every individual to express own feelings.
  • There have some language prescribed by the society which has only use by the males and some, only by the females.
  • Generally when we written something about a male and female we simply write “He” for both. Secondly after the marriage of a man, he remain ‘Mr’, but a woman changes from miss to mrs.
  • She also have to change her Gotra & Surname.
  • When people use the word saving money, if it’s for boy, we say it’s for his teaching, career but when we talk about girl we think saving money for her marriage.

Gender bias in culture:

  • Culture , which is transmitted from generation to generation, in case of gender bias, it also handed over from father to son and from mother to daughter.
  • In childhood, parents & teachers teach girls not to try things, because their effort either don’t make any difference or may be result in failure or any danger and boys are encouraged to do thing in a better way by their own effort.
  • Boys are giving toys require skills, car, dresses as Saktiman, Spiderman whereas girls are given Barbie doll, flowers for playing.
  • Boys are called as the person having strong emotion or control over emotion so though they wants to cry, the society don’t give him permission to cry in other aspects they have to earn money for their marriage and self reliant.
  • When a girl do something more get prestige by all and became feel happy but she forget the weakers need motivation. But when a boy do the same thing, it’s says as his duty and courage.

Gender bias in Theory:
The gender stereotypes lead to two types of bias as Alpha Bias which exaggerates the differences between man and woman whereas Beta bias ignores the differences between male & female and give importance &equity between male & female.

Thursday, January 29, 2009

The Nature of Women Atrocities

the United Nations committee on Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in its General Recommendation No. XII (1989) has recommended that State parties should act to protect women against violence of any kind especially that occurring within the family.

Types of Women Violence:

  1. Physical Violence
  2. Sexual Violence
  3. Verbal and Emotional Violence
  4. Economic Violence

Physical Violence:

  • Beating
  • Slapping
  • Hitting
  • Biting
  • Kicking
  • Punching
  • Pushing
  • Shoving, or
  • Causing bodily pain or injury in any other manner

Sexual Violence:

  • Forced to Sexual intercourse
  • Forced to look at pornography
  • Any act of sexual nature to abuse, humiliate or degrade
    child sexual abuse

Verbal and Emotional Violence:

  • Insults
  • Name-calling
  • Accusations on any ones character or conduct etc.
  • Insults for not having a male child
  • Insult for not bringing dowry
  • Preventing anyone from doing job
  • forcing anyone to marry a particular person
  • Any other verbal or emotional abuse

Economic Violence:

  • Not providing money for maintaining to a exploited woman or to her children
  • Not providing food, clothes, medicines etc.
  • Not allow to do job
  • Not allowing to use salary, wages

Monday, January 26, 2009

Origin of Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India was made by a Constituent Assembly which was specially convened to frame the Constitution of the country. The Constituent Assembly was set up under the Cabinet Mission Plan of May 16, 1946. The strength of the Constitution making body was to be 385 including 292 representatives drawn from the eleven Governor’s provinces of British India and 93 representatives from the Indian States.

Draft Constitution:
The Draft Constitution of India was published in February 1948. The Constitution Assembly met in November 1948 to consider the provisions of the draft clause by clause, it was completed by 17th October 1949. The Constitution Assembly again sat on 14th November 1949 for the third reading and finished it on 26th November 1949. When it was signed by 284 members of the Constituent Assembly, including the president of the Assembly Dr. Rajendra Prasad and was declared as passed.

It was historic occasion when an enormous task had been accomplished, it was no less than an achievement when Independent India had a Constitution of its own. The Constituent Assembly took 2 years 11 months and 17 days to produce the Constitution and nearly 6.4 crores rupees were spent on the preparation. The Constitution as originally adopted had 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules. Though, the Constitution was ready on 26th November, 1949, and some provisions relating to citizenship, elections, provisional parliament, temporary and transitional provisions were given immediate effect. But the rest of the Constitution came into force on 26th January, 1950, because on this date in 1929, the Indian National Congress had passed a resolution under the Presidentship of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in the Lahore session demanding Purna Swarajya from the British Government. Since that day, 26th January was being celebrated every year as "Purna Swarajya Day" or "Republic Day".

Wednesday, January 21, 2009

Muslim Personal Law

The different Muslim Personal Laws

1. Muslim Personal Law (Shariat)
2. Muslim Personal Law of Marriage and Divorce
3. Muslim Law of Inheritance

1. The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat)
The Law made with the principles of Quran is called as Shariat or Muslim Personal Law. It has been the cherished desire of the Muslims of British India and all the Muslim Women Organizations to change the customary laws, as it adversely affected their rights. They demanded that the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) be applicable to them.
To achieve Muslim Personal Law, Bill No-39 of 1935 was introduced in the Legislative Assembly on 26th September, 1935.

Hiba literally means, the donation of a thing from, which the done may desire a benefit.

2. Muslim personal Law of Marriage and Divorce
According to the Muslim Personal Law marriage (Nikah) is a civil contract.
The object of the marriage may be to legalise sexual intercourse and for procreation of children. Under this law every person governed by Muslim Law is capable of becoming a party to the marriage. The parties to the marriage should be of sound mind and have attained the age of puberty.
The requirement of a marriage is a proposal (i Jab) and acceptance of proposal shall be made by the parties to the marriage or by their agents or by guardians in case of incompetent persons like minors.
Unl wful Conjunction:
No person should have two wives at the same time who are related to each other by consanguinity affinity or fosterage. For example, a person can’t marry the sister of his wife but he can do so after the depth or divorce of the first one.
The Divorce of Muslim women is entitled to

  • A reasonable and fair provision and maintenance to be made and paid to her within the Iddat period by her formal husband.
  • Where she herself maintains the children born to her Divorce, a reasonable and fair provision and maintenance to be paid and made by her formal husband for a period of two years, from the respective date of birth of such children.
  • An amount equal to the sum of Mahr (Bride-Price) or Dowry agreed to be paid to her at the time of her marriage or at any time thereafter according to Muslim Law.
  • All the properties given to her before or at the time of marriage or after the marriage by her relatives, friends, husband or any relative of her husband or his friends.
The dissolution of Muslim Marriage Act-1939
Grounds for decree for dissolution of marriage are under below-
  • That the where about of the husband have not been known for the period of four year
  • That the husband has neglected or has failed to provide for her maintenance for period of two years
  • That the husband is sentenced to imprisonment for a period of Seven years or upwards
  • hat the husband is impatant at the time of the marriage and continue to be so
  • That the husband is insane for the period of two years or is suffering from Leprosy or any chronic disease
3. Muslim law of inheritance
Muslim are mainly governed by two schools of Laws as Hanafi School for Sunni Muslims and Shia School for Shia Muslims. The distribution of property take place only after the disadvantage of funeral expenses, debts and legacies of the deceased.
Sharers and their share under sun-in-law

  • The share of the father in the property of his son or daughter is 1/6. But father becomes residuary when the propositus die without leaving any child.
  • The share of the mother in the property of her son or daughter dying intestate is 1/6.
  • The maternal grand mother gets 1/6, only if there is no mother or nearer grand mother
  • The paternal grand mother gets 1/6 only if there is no mother, no father, no grand father
  • Husbands share is ¼. But his share will be ½ if propositus dies without leaving a child
  • The share of the wife is 1/8. But her share is 1/4, if the propositus dies without leaving any child.
  • The daughter’s share will be ½ if she is the only daughter. But if there have more than one daughter, they together take 2/3.

Tuesday, January 13, 2009

Orissa Rank High in Child Mortality

  • Orissa is one of the Five States in the country, where mortality is higher as 90 per 1000 live births.
  • 46 percent of Children under threeyears, in Orissa are under weight. 40 percent kids are stunted while 20% are wasted.
  • Two-third children in the State suffer from mild to severe anaemia. 61% of women & 34% of men are anemic
  • Kandhamal records the highest 187 child deaths per 1000, while Mayurbhanj has the lowest of 91
  • Bargarh district has the highest percentage (60) of under nourished children, while jharsuguda has the lowest (99)

Monday, January 12, 2009

Rural & Urban Community

Community means, a group of people living together, sharing common interest, having sense of belongingness. Community life depends upon some kinds of face to face communication/interaction among the members.

Elements of Community:

  • A group of people
  • Specific locality
  • Community sentiments
  • Natural
  • Likeness
  • Wider ends
  • Particular name
  • No legal status
  • Size

Types of Community:

  1. Rural Community
  2. Urban Community

1. Rural Community:
Rural Community means a group of rural people, having belongingness, sharing their emotions living in a specific locality within a village.
Rural Community is consists of rural people who are generally depends on agriculture.

Objectives of Rural Community:

  • To improve the living standards by providing food, shelter, clothing, employment and education
  • To increase productivity in Rural areas and reduce poverty
  • To involve people in planning and development through decentralization of administration
  • To ensure distributive justice and equalization of opportunities in the society

Characteristics of Rural Community:

  • Rural Community is mainly depends on agriculture
  • Rural communities are relatively more homogeneous
  • Relationships are not means to end type
  • It have their own culture and tradition
  • There have limited jobs
  • Depends on internal/natural resources
  • Rural Community is regulated by village Panch

2. Urban Community:
Urban Community means a group of people, having belongingness, sharing their emotion, live in a particular area in city.

Objectives of Urban Community:

  • To improve adequate support service to the slum dwellers
  • To reduce the ecological breakdown
  • To organize family welfare programmes to control population growth
  • To make plans for reduction of chronic diseases as HIV/AIDS, TB and Laprosy etc.

Characteristics of Urban Community:

  • Large in size
  • High density of population
  • Diversification of occupation
  • It have larger area for interaction
  • Relationships are means to end types
  • Migration of people from rural area
  • Development of Slums
  • Faster growth of population

Saturday, January 10, 2009

Child Labour & Government Plan of Action

Child Labour is one of the major problems which India is facing though there are clear provisions in our Constitution to safeguard the interest of the children. According to the International Labour Organization almost one billion children are working for their survival/ The United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates that in India there are more than 35 million child labourers, accounting for 14% of children in the 5-14 years age group.

Based on the recommendations of Gurupadswamy Committee the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act was enacted in 1986. The Act prohibits the employment of children in certain specified hazardous occupations. In consonance with the above approach a National Policy on Child Labour was formulated in 1987.

Salient points in different Plan period

  • Expansion of NCLP to additional 150 districts under 10th Plan period
  • Reinforced action to eliminate child labour in the hazardous occupations
  • Linking the child labour elimination efforts with the scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan to ensure that children (5-8 years) get directly admitted to regular schools.
  • On the 11th Plan period, establishment of Central Monitoring Committee (CMC) on Child Labour has also recommended to eliminate child labour

Wednesday, January 7, 2009

Dimensions of Research Design

The research design implies planning of research. Research design is necessary to remember and give a shape or design. Research design or model makes possible to give a overall evaluation to the total plan.

The major design decisions are in reference to the following aspects:
  • Why the study is being made?
  • Where the data needed, can be found?
  • Where or in what area the study will be carried out?
  • What period of time the study will include?
  • How much material or how many cases will be needed?
  • What bases will be used for selection of cases?
  • What techniques of gathering data will be adopted?
  • How will the data be analysed?
  • How best can these above questions be decided upon and decisions articulated in a manner that the research purpose will be achieved with minimum expenditure of money, time and energy?

Dimensions of Research Design:
  1. Control over the Universe
  2. Resource
  3. Contact persons
  4. Appointment of local people in social lab
  5. Patronage

1. Control over the Universe:

Universe is a very broad concept. But here Universe means the particular area where a researcher practice his research. It have also different dimensions which have different functions as-

  • It may be related to place/region
  • Person/demography
  • Various variables, data and facts
  • The valid and relevant logic or jurisdiction
  • It's co-related with universe for comparison

2. Resource:

Resource includes time and money for research design. In case of social research the time is limited for 2 to 3 years. So the financial constraints are there to includes fellowship and scholarship for limited period of time. So availability of resource and maintenance of it is necessary.

3. Contact persons:

The contact persons are the opinion builders. They are opinion builders and conscience of the people. They mobilise the community in favour of research topic and the researcher. So that a researcher can enter into his universe to conduct research.

4. Appointment of local people in social lab:

Social Laboratory may be centre to create awareness among the persons and communities irrespective of their caste, creed, religion etc. A researcher must keep some persons in that lab, who are very much thorough knowledge in their local language, customs, dialect and speech. It is a centre to attract the research subjects. It reduces the time and the scholar needn't go to the subject for the collection of dis-aggregate data, on the other hand people come to him voluntarily to provide informations. This lab contains different posters and other documentary equipments to provide vivid picture about the research design and its practice.

5. Patronage:

A researcher wants helping hands. It is the dimension of research designing in the sense that a researcher has to identify helping hands to complete research, while drawing the design, he should take the help of friends & peer groups.

Friday, January 2, 2009

Hindu Persosnal Law

Personal Law:
Personal Law means the specific laws which are personal to some specific groups or race and which are protect the individual rights and provide social security. Personal Laws are relevant justification for ensuring human justice. The Regulating Act 1773 was the first of its kind which allowed the Hindus to follow their responsive Personal Laws .

Types of Personal Law:
  1. Indian Succession Act-1925
  2. Hindu Marriage Act-1955
  3. Hindu Minority & Guardianship Act-1956
  4. Law of Adoption

1. Indian Succession Act-1925:

Intestate Succession among Hindu is governing by its own Personal Law. Therefore this act deals with the-

  • Intestate succession among other communities in India
  • Testamentary succession of all the communities


This Act Extend to the all states of India except the state of Jammu & Kashmir.

This Act is Applicable to a Hindu, Budhist, Jaina and sikh and to any person other than muslim , christian, parsi or jew.

Share of the Widow:

1/3 of the state shall devolve upon the widow & remaining 2/3 shall go to the lineal descendants.

Share of Children:

After deducting the widow's share the remaining estate shall go to the child of the deceased or equally among the children of the deceased.

Rules where there have no children:

Where the deceased have no children, 1/2 of the property of the deceased has given to the widow and remaining 1/2 to the father.

2. Hindu Marriage Act-1955:

The Hindu Marriage Act make provision for the marriage, registration, restitution of conjugal rights, judicial separation and divorce etc.


This Act extends to the all states of India except the state of Jammu & Kashmir.


This act is applicable to a Hindu, Budhist, Jaina and sikh and to any person other than muslim , christian, parsi or jew.

Conditions for Hindu Marriage:

  • The groom should completed the age of 21 years and the bride 18 years.
  • The parties are not within the prohibited relationship unless the custom or usage governing each of them permits.
  • The parties are not sapindas of each other unless the custom or usage governing each of them permits.

Ceremonies for Hindu Marriage:

A Hindu Marriage may be solemnized as per the customary rites and ceremonies of either party. The marriage becomes complete and binding when the "Seventh Steps" has completed.

Registration of HIndu Marriage:

To facilitate the proof of Hindu marriage the state government may make rules for the registration of Hindu marriages.

3. Hindu Minority & Guardianship Act-1956:

Under this act, the term HIndu means Hindu, Budhist, jaina or sikh.


This Act extends to the all states of India except the state of Jammu & Kashmir.

Natural guardian of a Hindu Minor:

  • In the case of a boy or an unmarried girl, the father and after him the mother, however the custody of a minor who had not completed the age of five years shall generally be with the mother.
  • In the case of an illegitimate boy or an illegitimate un-married girl the mother and after her the father
  • In case of a married girl the husband
  • The natural guardian of a Hindu Minor has the power to do necessary, proper and reasonable acts for the benefit of the minor or for the realization, protection or benefit of a minor's estate but he shalln't bind the minor by a Personal covenant.
  • Where the Minor is a girl the guardian so appointed shall cease in her marriage.

4. Law of Adoption:


This Act extends to the all states of India except the state of Jammu & Kashmir.

Requisities for a Valid Adoption:

No adoption shall be valid unless-

  1. The person adopting, has the capacity and right to do so
  2. The person giving in adoption has the capacity to do so
  3. The person adopted is capable of being taken in adoption &
  4. The adoption is made in accordance with the provisions of this Act(sec-6)

Capacity of a Male Hindu to adopt a child:

Any male Hindu who is of sound mind but not a minor has the capacity to take a son or daughter in adoption, if he has a wife her prior concern is require.

Capacity of a female Hindu to adopt a child:

A female Hindu has the capacity to take a son or daughter in adoption if-

  • She is not having sound mind
  • She is not a minor
  • She is not married or if married get permission from her husband