Thursday, October 29, 2009

The Concept of Development & Displacement


Development is basically a normative term and carries varieties of meanings. Development generally implies some sort of advancement in positive direction. Though the progress was achieved in agricultural, economic and industrial front, development on the other side has pushed indigenous people and weaker sections of society into poverty and backwardness.

In the process of Displacement, it is the poor more particularly the tribal who bear its brunt most at all. The dislocated of the life of the poor is total stripped off their possession, they are compelled to move out side in search for livelihood to unknown destination.

Though millions of people have been displaced by various planned development schemes since Independence, no reliable data exists on the extent of displacement and rehabilitation. The estimate of total number of people displaced by planned development intervention from 1951-90 ranges from 110 lakh to 185 lakh, which has increased to 213 lakh in 2001.

According the national record 25.5 lakhs of people have been displaced by mines, 12.5 lakhs by industries, 164 lakhs by large and medium dams, 10 lakhs by park and wild life operation etc. The backward communities more particularly the tribal regions and tribal people are most affected in this process of development.

Principles relating to protection from Displacement

1. A specific decision shall be taken by the State authority empowered by law to order such measures
2. Adequate measures shall be taken to guarantee to those to be displaced full information on the reasons and procedures for their displacement and where applicable , on compensation and relocation
3. The free and informed consent of those to be displaced shall be sought
4. The authorities concerned shall endeavor to involve those affected, particularly women. In the planning and management of their relocation
5. Law enforcement measures, where required, shall be carried out by competent legal authorities
6. The right to an effective remedy, including the review of such decisions by appropriate judicial authorities, shall be respected.

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