Wednesday, December 31, 2008

The Great Reformers and the Socio-Religious Reform Movement

Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was popularly known as the 'Father of Indian Renaissance ' was born on 22nd May 1772 in a Brahmin family in Bengal. With his gifted brain, he learnt many languages and studied several scriptures of different religions like Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sufism etc. He was influenced by the Western culture and spread the message of Unity of religions and rationality. He was against of the practice of Idol Worship, blind faith and religious rituals.

He founded the Atmiya Sabha in 1815 and the Brahmo Samaj on 20th August 1828. Through this Institutions he fought against Orthodox Hindus and the fanatic Christian Missionaries.
He was against of Sati system, Polygamy, Child marriage, Caste system and Untouchability. He was the great supporter of Inter-caste marriage, women education, Widow remarriages etc.
Ram Mohan started publishing Newspapers and Magazines for which he was called the 'Father of Indian Journalism'.

Swami Dayananda Saraswati
Swami Dayanada born in 1824 in a small town of Gujurat. Swami Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of the 'Arya Samaj' was one of the maker of Modern India. Taking inspiration from Veda, he criticized evil practices like Idol Worship, Caste system, untouchability etc. Dayananda wrote books like Ratnamala and Bharat Nirvana.

His Arya Samaj gave emphasis on the liberation of the Hindu Society. He called people ‘Go back to the Veda’ created consciousness among the people. He strongly opposed Idol worship, ritualism, practice of animal sacrifice, the idea of Heaven etc. This movement also challenged the Christian Missionaries who tried to convert the uneducated, poor and depressed classes of the Hindus.

Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda was another important Social Reformer who brought spiritual reawakening among the Indians in the 19th Century, popularly known as the ‘Intellectual Monk of India’ He was born in Calcutta on 12th, January, 1863. He began his life of wondering all over the country with his message of ‘Awakened India’ or ‘Prabhuda Bharat’.

He set-up ‘Ramakrishna Mission’ on 1st May, 1897. According to him, ‘Man is the maker of his own Destiny. The whole world has been made by the energy of man, by the power of faith’.
He believes in that types of education which enables one to stand on her/his own leg. His preaching said ‘All religions are pathways to the same God’.

Tuesday, December 30, 2008

Human Rights Movement

1. B.R.Ambedkar started ‘Mahad Satyagraha’ in 1927 A.D. Whose main aim is to provide adequate right to the common people which is the gift of nature like drinking water, free air and working on rules and he advised the Dalits publicly to burn the Manu Smriti. Making the scripture responsible for dis-organisation and dimorolization of the Hindu Society.

2. Simon Commission (1927)
B.R.Ambedkar got an opportunity to putforth demand of the backword classes and made constitutional provisions for a political structure in India those are as follows-

  • Structure of the central and provincial Govt
  • Provincial autonomy of administration
  • Industrialisation of the Indian Civil services
  • Constitution of the state public service commission
  • Special facilities for the backward classes

3. Turning Point: (1932)
B.R.Ambedkar started temple entry movement in Nasik on 1930, demanded for “Swaraj” (Self Rule).
In the Round table conference, Ambedkar demanded right of the Dalits, that made as the writ between Gandhiji and Ambedkar.

4. The Pune Pact
The Pune Pact was sign on 24th Sept,1933 between Gandhi and Ambedkar, that gave birth to Reservation of seats for the Back Ward Classes.

5. Drafted the Constitution (1946-1950)
Ambedkar is called as the Father of the Indian Constitution, with the longest Constitution and largest democracy. It enshrines Justice, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity and guaranted sovereignity for all.
Article 17 of the Constitution speaks for the Abolition of Untauchability & special provision for the upliftment of S.C & S.Ts. There have also provision of One man One vote.

6. Revival of Budhism
Ambedkar with his millions of followers accepted Budhism in October 14, 1956. It was better known to history as “Nagpur’s great Conversion”. It was a protest against Hinduism. He called upon the world population from British Broadcast corporation to ambrace Budhism based on Pragyana (knowledge) , samokta (equality) and karuna (kindness).

Sunday, December 28, 2008

Women Empowerment Through Micro Finance

Empowerment is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action and control work in an autonomous way take control over resources and over ideology.

The concept of Micro Finance:
The term micro finance is of recent origin and is commonly used in addressing issues related to poverty alleviation, financial support to micro entrepreneurs, gender development etc.
The term 'Micro' literally means "small". But the task force has not defined any amount. However as per Micro Credit special Cell of the Reserve Bank of India, the borrowable amounts up to the limit of Rs.25000/- could be considered as micro credit products and this amount could be gradually increased up to Rs.40000/- over a period of time which roughly equals to $500- a standard for South Asia as per international perceptions.

The mantra of "Micro finance" is banking through groups. The essential features of the approach are to provide financial services through groups of individuals, formed either in joint liability or co-obligation mode. The other dimensions of the micro finance approach are:
  • Saving/Thrift precedes credit
  • Credit is linked with savings/thrift
  • Absence of subsidies
  • Group plays an important role in credit appraisal, monitoring and recovery

Basically groups can be of two types:

Self Help Groups (SHGs): The group in this case does financial inter mediation on behalf of the formal institution. This is the predominant model followed in India.

Grameeen Groups: In this model, financial assistance is provided to the individual in a group by the formal institution on the strength of group's assurance. In other words, individual loans are provided on the strength of joint liability/co-obligation. This micro finance model was initiated b7y Bangladesh Grameen Bank and is being used by some of the Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs) in our country.

Saturday, December 27, 2008

India’s Tribal Children & Education

India is the World’s largest democracy, yet over one-third of its population is unable to read and write. A disproportionate share of India’s illiterate population is confined to cover 130,000 tribal (Vanavasi) villages. Over ninety percent of India’s tribal citizens are unable to read. The future of 40 million children living in abject poverty is being stifled by a lack of educational opportunity. India must include the children of its most interior communities to progress. Literacy is the key to the true sustainable empowerment of India’s ignored tribal population.

There were 16 million ST children (10.87 million of 6-11 years and 5.12 million of 11-14 years) as of
March 2001, out of the total child population in India of about 193 million in the age group of 6 to 14
years (Selected Educational Statistics – 2000-01, Government of India). Education of ST children is
considered important, not only because of the Constitutional obligation but also as a crucial input for Total development of tribal communities.

The interventions being promoted in States includes-
• Schools, education guarantee centres and alternative schools in tribal habitations for non-enrolled
and drop-out children;
• Textbooks in the mother tongue for children at the beginning of the primary education cycle,
when they do not understand the regional language. Suitably adapted curriculum and the
availability of locally relevant teaching and learning materials for tribal students

Friday, December 26, 2008

HIV and AIDS - A General Overview


December 1st is observed every year as World AIDS Day. This day is dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection. On this day, we often see people wearing the 'Red Ribbon'. What does it signify? The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for response and solidarity with HIV positive people and those living with AIDS.


  • Red like love to those affected
  • Red like blood, the suffering AIDS caused
  • Red like anger that makes us take action
  • Red like a warming not to ignore HIV/AIDS

AIDS has killed more than 25 million people, and there is an estimated 38.6 million people living with HIV, making it done of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. A major concern in this unprecedented impact on development impact on development is that the highest occurrence of HIV infection is in the 18 to 40 years age group, which constitute the most economically productive workforce in the country.
Fifty per cent of India's one billion population falls into this young and sexually active group. The first AIDS case in India was detected in 1986 in Chennai.

The joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) notes that, "25 years, HIV has spread relentlessly from a few widely scattered 'hot spots' to virtually every country in the world, infecting 65 million people and killing 25 million".

Wednesday, December 24, 2008

Tools to frame the Research Questions

A questionnaire consists of questions printed (or typed) in a definite order on a form (or set of forms). The forms are usually mailed to the respondents who are expected to read and understand the questions and reply to them in writing in the relevant spaces provided for the purposes on the said forms.

Questionnaire method-
The signal advantage of the questionnaire method is that affords great facilities in collecting data from large, diverse and widely scattered groups of people.
It’s used in gathering objective, quantitative data as well as for securing information of a qualitative nature.

Types of tools to frame the research questions-

  • Schedules
  • Questionnaire
  • Interview guides

    Schedule-
    These are use in direct interview of the responds. It includes direct observation recorded by the field investigators in conducting social research.
    Data which are collected by the researcher are recorded in schedules.

    Questionnaire-
    Questionnaires are send by post to the respondent by the researcher
    The respondent fill-up the questionnaire and returned to the researcher by post.

    Interview guides-
    Interview guides contains the topic, bold headings about the problem or social issues and guides the researcher to formulate questions and schedules for the completion of researcher. But there have borderline difference between schedule and researchers.
    The framing of research questions and schedules depend on Interview guides in qualitative research. It guides the researcher to select a title or name for his research topic.

    Types of Schedule-
  • Direct question schedules
    It is also called as Observation schedule. The questions are pin-pointed to collect information.
  • Rating schedules
    It’s socio-psychological by nature. Generally use to measure the opinion reaction and the attitude of the respondents.
  • Document schedules
    It is use to collect secondary source of data from Government and non-government records, annual reports library etc.
  • Interview schedules
    It contains standardize questions to built the substance of the research. Such questions must include different dimensions of the problem.
  • Steps for formulate(frame) research schedule-
  • It should be attractive
  • The statement of the problem
  • Information collected for valid
  • Lay-out (planning)

It should be attractive-
The attractive includes the quality of the paper, size of the schedule, margin and spacing, printing in different colours, use of pictures . So to attract the respondent.

The statement of the problem
The problem should be clearly stated and sub devided into different aspect. But the researcher should be wel-aquainted with the problem.

Information collected for valid
Valid questions and irrelevant questions shouldn’t find a place in schedule or questionnaire.

Lay-out (planning)
The questionnaire or schedules are properly planned, so it will cover all aspects of research problem.

Limitation of framing research question-

  • Framing research is a very costly affairs
  • Research calls for administrative problems
  • Research is very much influenced by his personal likes and dislikes
  • Time limit
  • Creative questionnaires with the need
  • Creative review


Tuesday, December 23, 2008

Status of Women in Global Scenario (2007 Human Rights Report)

The Global Official record says that-
  1. 62 Million girls under age 15 don't go to school
  2. 96 Million young young women between the age of 15-24 are Illiterate
  3. 7.3 Million young women are living with HIV/AIDS
  4. Two thirds of newly infected youth in sub sahara Africa are Females
  5. 14 Million females aged 15-19 give birth each year
  6. More than 70,00,00 teenage girls are married each day in many countries before the age of 18 years
  7. 450 Million adult women are stunted from childhood protein malnutrition
  8. 9.6 Million girls are hazardous labourer including slavery, prostition and armed conflict
  9. In India every day 7,ooo female foetus has taken place
  10. In India more than 25 Million female are working as sexual worker. From which 25% are came into the profession between the age of 14-18

Monday, December 22, 2008

Steps taken for Safe Motherhood

  • Registration of a pregnant women in nearest health check-up centre between 12 weeks of her pregnancy is called as Early Registration.
  • After registration a pregnant women should be given 1st Tetanus Booster
  • After 2 months should be given 2nd Booster
  • Every pregnant lady must be given check-up at least for 3 time.
  • 1st Check up - After 20 Weeks of Pregnancy
  • 2nd Check up - After 28 Weeks
  • 3rd Check up - After 36 Weeks
  • Proper check-up is mostly acceptable in the last 3 months of pregnancy
  • Rapid Blood Pressure check-up is mostly require
  • She should be taken Iron Tablets daily
  • Use of Iodine salt in food
  • If she suffer with bloodlessness should be take 2 tablets daily at least for 100 days
  • After 4 months of pregnancy she must take 2 chloroquine tablets in a weak but in 1st dose 4 tablets must be taken
  • For the better health of child & herself, should be take much food
  • Must be taken rest in the day time at least for 2 hours
  • Sleeping in left-side is good because of proper blood-circulation of child

Symptoms:

  • Head-ache
  • Dizziness of head
  • Loss of eye power
  • Saw darkness
  • Upper abdomen pain
  • Swelling of foot

Social Research to deal with Social Problems

The term research has been derived from the French word "researcher', 're' & 'chercher' which means a critical examination of a topic or subject to discover new facts for increasing the sum total of human knowledge.
  • Social research is an attempt to know new things, facts, information etc about the society in a scientific manner.
  • Social research deals with social phenomena and studies human behaviour.
  • Through social research a researcher can find out the remedial majors to reduce social evils.
  • Social research is a only method through which it can possible to find out the real problem of the society and give a proper solution to it.

Sunday, December 21, 2008

The Concept of Civil Society

  • In 1994, CIVICUS noted the potential civil society offered to citizens world wide to promote a better future
  • In the year 1999, is a time to celebrate the growth of civil society globally and a time to reflect on its future development
  • The 1999 civicus world assembly provides forum for its members and partners to assess civil societies previous progress, to chart its future direction and to begin formulating appropriate strategies for achieving shared objectives
  • To understand civil society and particularly what needs strengthening and how to go about doing it requires identifying its principal functions as the first step in defining what a strong and healthy civil society might look like and the role of public actor in the promotion of sustainable Human Development in the local, national and global level says about the strengthening of civil society.

Crime identified under the Indian Penal Code (IPC)

  1. Rape (Section 376 IPC)
  2. Kidnapping and Abduction for different purposes (Section 363, 373 IPC)
  3. Homicide for Dowry Deaths or their attempts (Section 302/304)
  4. Torture, both mental and physical (Section 498- IPC)
  5. Molestation (Section 354 IPC)
  6. Sexual harassment (Section 509 IPC)
  7. Importation of girls (upto 21 years of age) (section 366-B IPC)

The promises of Civil Society

  1. To solve the major problems
  2. Its role in eradicating poverty
  3. Promoting democracy & good governance
  4. Resolving social conflict
  5. Protecting Human Rights
  6. Participating with the Governments in discussions dealing with the social, economic & environmental problems of the society
  7. Thereby inspired by the associations the people & communities living more democratic form of governance
  8. Improved social & economic welfare in their wake
  9. The idea & promise of civil society lies as much in its potential as it does in the very real achievements that it has produced to date
  10. Building of healthy public law
  11. Promotion of sustainable human development
  12. Improve human condition