Tuesday, November 25, 2008

Jainism in India

Jainism is a non-Brahminical religion founded as a result of revolt against the Brahmanism of the 6th century BC. Jainism became a major religion under Vardhamana Mahavira was a great Kshatriya belonging to the royal families of Magadha.

He was born at Kundagrama (Vaishali), near Mauaffarpur in Bihar. At the age of 30, he became an ascetic and at the age of 42 he attained perfect knowledge-'Kaivalya'. He conquered misery and happiness and came to be known as 'Jina' (the conqueror). He died at the age of 72 in 468 BC.

Doctrine of Mahavira:

  1. Attainment of Nirvana
  2. Belief in Ahimsa or non-violence
  3. Belief in Karma

1. Attainment of Nirvana (release from birth) through Tri-Ratna (three jewels) consisting of

(i) Right faith

(ii) Right knowledge

(iii) Right conduct

2. Belief in Ahimsa or non-violence in world, thought or deed towards all living beings.

3. Belief in Karma through denying the existence of God and dismissal or ritual

Doctrine of Buddhism

Goutam Siddhartha who was Kshatriya prince of the Saka clan. He was born in 563BC(or 576 BC as is believed by some historian) at Lumbini in Nepal and was the son of Suddodhana, Raja of Kapilavastu. He left his family at the age of 29 in search of truth (also called the great Renunciation) and wandered about for seen years.

He received enlightenment at Bodh Gaya under a Pipal tree and became the Buddha. He delivered his first sermon at Sarnath in Benaras. he spread his message for about 40 years and died at the age of 80 in 483 BC at Kushinagar in Deoria district of eastern Uttar Pradesh.


Buddhism is called as the fourth greatest religion in the world originated in India. Buddhism received state patronage of kings like Ashoka the Great, and it spread to neighbouring countries like Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Japan, Vietnam,Thailand.

Doctrine of Buddhism
  1. The Four Great Truths
  2. The Eight-Fold Path
  3. Belief in Nirvana
  4. Belief in Ahimsa
  5. Law of Karma
  6. Existence of God

1. The Four Great Truths

  • The world is full of sorrow and misery
  • The cause of all pain and misery is desire
  • Pain and misery can be ended by killing or controlling desire
  • Desire can be controlled by following the Eight-Fold Path

2. The Eight-Fold Path consists of : Right thought, Right action, Right livelihood, Right efforts, Right speech, Right remembrance and Right concentration.
3. Belief in Nirvana when desire ceases, rebirth ceases and Nirvana is attained, i.e., freedom from the cycle of birth, death and rebirth is gained by following the eight-fold path.
4. Belief in Ahimsa is one should not cause injury to any living being, animal or man.
5. Law of Karma is man reaps the fruit of his past deeds.
6. Existence of God is Buddhism is silent about the existence of God.

Causes for the rise of Buddhism

  • Vedic rights had become very complicated and expensive
  • Domination by Brahmins who monopolized the religion
  • Use of difficult and outdated language in religious ceremonies

Monday, November 24, 2008

Merits & Demerits of Joint-Family

Joint family we means a group of people who generally live under one roof, who eat food , cooked at one hearth, who hold property in common, who participate in common family worship & who are related to each other. Joint family or traditional family is recognize as a set of social relationships and a functioning unit.

Definition:
According to Chandra Shekhar, "In a word joint family is simple, the common ownership of means of production & common enjoyment of fruits of labor".

Merits of Joint Family:
  1. Protection against distress & unemployment
  2. Common security
  3. Joint responsibility
  4. Old age security
  5. Tolerance & mutual co-operation
  6. Reservation of family tradition
  7. Check on individual interest

Demerits of Joint family:

  1. Joint family give raise to dependency
  2. Hindrance to social mobility
  3. Sloth(in activeness) & laziness
  4. Jealousy & quarrel
  5. Measurable condition of women
  6. child marriage
  7. Absence of privacy
  8. Lack of individuality

Probation Offender Act-1958

Short Title:
The children Act, 1908, released some of the offenders, considering their self satisfied behaviour. A jail committee report, during 1919 & 1920 was instituted. Government prepared a draft on probation offenders Bill during 1931. The central Government also directed the provincial authority to follow the probation offenders bill during 1934. In Independent India Probation Offender Act came into being in 16th,May,1958.
Extention:
This Act extends to the whole of India except the state of Jammu & Kashmir.
Probation:
Probation is a non-punitive method for dealing with the offenders. It is a method in which we deal with the offenders as individuals & provide them opportunity for changing their habits & attitude. According to this Act, after thorough observation of a prisoner about his conduct, good or bad/satisfactory or not, their cases are discuss in a relax manner. Due to their good behaviour he/she will be release for a specific period & the office in charge take care of that prisoner.
Development of Probation:
As a legal system, it was first developed in the USA in 1849. In England John Haward & Elizabeth Fry helped to the development of probation system. Again in 1891, in act was passed, which provided for the appointment of probation officers.
Section 3:
When a person is found guilty of having committed an offence punishable under section 379 or 380 or 381 or 404 or 420 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 or any offence with imprisonment up to two years or with fine or with both & no previous conviction is proved against the offender, the court having regard to the circumstances of the case including the nature of the offence & the character of the offender may release him after due admonition.
Section 4:
When any person is found guilty of having committed an offence not punishable with death or life imprisonment the court having regard to the circumstances of the case, including the nature of the offence & the character of the offender may direct for the release by entering into a bond with or without sureties to appear & receive sentence when called upon during such period, not exceeding three years as the court may direct & in the meantime to keep peace & good behaviour.
Section-5:
When a court orders for the release of an offenders under section 3 or 4 of this Act, it shall direct the offender to pay-
Compensation as the court thinks fit for the court loss or injury caused to any person by that offence
Such cost of the processing as the court think fit
The amount ordered to be paid under sub-section above be recovered as a fine as per section above be recovered as a fine per section 386 & 387 of 1898.
Section 6:
When any person under 21 years of age found guilt of having committed an offence punishable with imprisonment, but not life imprisonment. Th court shall not sentence him unless it is satisfied that having regard to the circumstances of the case including the nature of the offence & character of the offender.
Section 9:
The offender so arrested or appeared may be remanded to police custody or may be released on bail to appear for the hearing as the court may fix. After hearing, if the court is satisfied that the offender has failed to observe any of the conditions of the bond, it may sentence him for the original offence.

Saturday, November 22, 2008

Laws related to Family

Constitutional provisions for Family:

Article 14: Equality before law
Article 15(3): The state, to make any special provision in favour of women & children
Article 16: Equality of opportunity relating to employment
Article 21: Right to life & personal liberty of every individual
Article 42: The state to make provisions for just & human conditions of work & maternity relief
Article 45: Free & compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years
Article 47: Raise the level of nutrition & standard of living of its people & the improvement of public health

Special plan & policies for family:
  1. National population policy-2000
  2. Health & family welfare policy
  3. National rural-health mission
  4. Universalizing ICDS
  5. Major initiatives like Asha
  6. Janani suraksha yojana
  7. Formation of Family Counseling Centre
  8. Short stay home

Family Functions for Socialization

Family means a group of people living together having blood relationship, their mentality may be same or different but they share same kitchen.
Family is the oldest institution among all institution. The family is the social institution where one can look for personal psychological peace & security.


Definition:
Maclver & pages said, "A family is a group defined by sex relation, sufficiently precise & enduring to provide for the procreation & upbringing of children".

Functions of a family:
  1. Division of labor
  2. Reproduction & upbringing of children
  3. Socialization
  4. Residence
  5. Economic function
  6. Social care
  7. Regulate sex relation

Division of labor:
In a family the power must be distributed between its members according to their role & status within the family & society. It should be accepted by everyone that a female is working within the house as cooking, taking care of children, look after her husband & total family member, worship, collect firewood & drag water from well whereas a male is working for production. He is working at outside home to maintain the family.


Reproduction & upbringing of children:
The reproduction & bringing of children is one of the most important function of every Indian family. Children is the first desire of every family. So family is called as the centre of production & reproduction. As the production is essential to live a better & satisfactory life, reproduction is a basic need of every family to run a family in a better way.


Socialization:
When a baby take birth she/he observe & learn many things as morality, ethics, value of life, respect, love & affection from the family & society. Family is the oldest institution from which a child learn many things & make a place within the family and society.


Residence:
Residence is a permanent place where a person live. A family provide residence & security to all family members. A family provides name of its own to all its member according to which one can get prestige within a family & in society.

Economic function:
A family is consists of its member whose prior function is to provide economic support to the family. The male & female both have the duty to provide minimum finance to the family.

Social care:
Family is consisting of its members who have blood relationship & who are a part of society. Who learn how to care, look-after other members within a family. They learn that things from the family & society. Giving equal status to all its members & protecting its member from insult, crisis & social problem.

Regulate sex-relation:
Family is a primary & oldest association where upbringing of children & sex relation is a primary concern. But unlike the animals human being have a limit sex relation. A family regulate the sex-relation.

Other functions as:

  • Biological Function
  • Psychological Function
  • Social Function
  • Socialization
  • Formation of personality trades

Gender Bias In Indian Society

Gender we means male or female. But today the concept of Gender is change. According to the new concept 'Either male or female called as gender according to their social & cultural role and responsibility within the society & family.

Gender Bias:
Gender bias means discrimination over sex. Gender bias is a separation of gender in a way which prefers one sex over the other. It is called as a negative perception of a male and female.

Definition:
Gender bias is defined as "preference or inclination that inhibits impartiality or prejudice".

The factor leads to Gender Bias:

  1. Male preference starts before birth
  2. gender bias in Higher study
  3. Infertility
  4. Right of women over decision making
  5. absence of freedom
  6. Crime against women
  7. Poverty
  8. Absence of employment opportunity
  9. Disease & other health hazards

Male preference starts before birth:
In India generally people are going for second child if the 1st is a female but if the 1st or 2nd child is a male then they prefer abortion. If by the test it is knowing that the coming baby is a boy than that pregnant lady get well treatment & caring. But it is different in the case of a female.
In South Korea, nearly 80,000 female foetus were aborted between 1986-89. In India only everyday minimum 7000 female foetus are aborted. In Haryana there have male preference is more than to females. So the sex ratio is 861-1000 and very surprisingly it is 798-1000. This abortions are the cause of male preference.

Gender bias in higher studies:
Either for poverty, social stigma or the fear of crime as rape, prostitution & trafficking, they are staying apart from getting higher education. the families are sawing less interest to encourage girl child for higher education as IIT.


Infertility:
In the Indian Society if a women is unable to conceive a baby after one year of married sexual life, that is called Infertility. In this case both male & female are responsible, but initially in that case only the female partners are answerable or blamed.


Right over decision making:
Generally in our society a adolescence women have little right over sexual & reproductive decision making. Most of the time to conceive a baby the decision of male partner is taking into account. The normal drive that is sex drive is a desire for both partners. But it is usually found that the male partner always take advantage during this act. Even in decision making procedure within the home they are given less concern.


Absence of freedom:
Female don't enjoy as much freedom and liberty as man. It is observe that women have always depend on their parents before marriage & after they get married they depends upon their husband & in laws.


Crime against women:
Women are the victims of crimes of numerous type at the hands of Man. They are abused & exploited mentally & physically. They are even burnt for dowry, victims of rape, prostitution, sexually harassment and trafficking.


Poverty:
Generally though the male partner of a family is so rich, many times we found that , the female partner don't get sufficient financial support which fulfil their basic needs because they are the home-makers.


Absence of employment opportunity:
Unemployment is the most serious problem faced by the women. There is always a lack of job for the educated women. Today also in the Army sector they don't get the facility to work in defence.
In many of Official sector, they are exploited by their official staffs. In some other States as Bihar, Haryana, Jaipur or in the country Pakistan till now female are deprived from employment due to social stigma & atrocities.


Disease & other health hazards:
There have a Gender Bias in the field of caring. Generally females are getting less importance in the field of health after & before marriage. Mainly they live in stress, strain & anxiety. Female are being weak for lack of proper nutrition & care. In Indian society generally in case of poverty, a wife always desires that the available resource be utilized for the care of her husband & family. So many times she may be hidden her personal problems. That's why Gender Bias is called as ones own negative perception which dominate oneself.

Friday, November 21, 2008

IPC an Integral part of Social Legislation

In India the criminal jurisprudence came into existence from the time of Manu. Manu had recognized assault, theft, robbery, false evidence, slander, criminal breach of trust, cheating, adultery and rape as crime. In 1834, the first Indian Law Commission was constituted to investigate into the jurisdiction, powers and rules of the existing courts as well as police establishment and into the laws in operation in British India. The 'Indian Penal Code" was drafted by the first Indian law commission under the president ship of Macaulay and was submitted to the Governor-general of India in council in 1837.
Short Title:
The Indian Penal Code Bill was passed by the legislative council and it received the assent of the government-general on 6th, October,1860. It came on the statute book as the IPC on 1860.

Extention of the IPC:
This act shall be extended to the whole of India except the state of Jammu & Kashmir.

Section 53:
Offenders are liable under this code, for death, imprisonment for life, rigorous simple imprisonment, forfeiture of property.

Section 54:
In every cases in which death sentence has been passed, Government may without consent of offender, commute punishment.

Section 55:
In every case in which life imprisonment has been passed, government may, without consent of offender , commute punishment for the term not exceeding fourteen years.

Section 67:
If offence is punishable with fine only, imprisonment imposed in default of payment of fine shall be simple. Term of imprisonment in default of payment of fine shall not exceed-
Two months when fine shall not exceed Rs.50/-
Four months when fine shall not exceed Rs.100/-&
not exceeding six months - in any other

Section 120(A):
When two or more persons agree to do cause to be done, an illegal act/an act which is not illegal but done. by illegal means. Such agreement is designated as criminal conspiracy

Section 121:
Wherever attempts/abets/wages war against Government of India, shall be punished with death of imprisonment for life & fine.

Section 122:
Whoever collects men/arms/ammunition/otherwise prepares to wage war against Government of India shall be punished with imprisonment for life or imprisonment for term not less than 10 years and fine.

Insertion of new section 195:
Whoever threatens, another with any injury to his person, reputation or properly or to the person or reputation of any one in whom that person is interested shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine or with both.

Civil society & Government

Civil Society:
  1. Civil society is a registered body
  2. There have office set-up
  3. according to the will of civil society office bearer can change
  4. It is based on voluntary action
  5. There have non-formal requirement
  6. Civil society are govern by their own principle
  7. Management enjoy discretional privileges
Government:
  • Government have registering authority
  • Government appoint office staff
  • Transfer of office bearer
  • Governmental officers are work for payment
  • To select someone it must be approved by the high-authority
  • Rule by the Government
  • The Government employees enjoy very specific privileges

Budgeting for Financial Planning

Budget is a complete financial forecast based on available data, about the financial condition of the agency during the coming year.Budgeting is a subject matter which is a core part of financial planning in the programme activities of a project. It guide the agency member about the manner of spending money on various schemes and heads of account. It is a basis means of controlling the programmes as well as the funds.

Principles of Budgeting:
  1. A budget should always give a comparative statement of income raised and expenditure incurred during the previous years.
  2. The budget should relate to a particular period of 12 months, by fiscal or calender year. Each agency follows a different year for the purposes of preparation of its budget and complication of accounts. Mostly in the year April or December.
  3. The budget should should always be realistic, accurate and consrevative.
  4. The cost of fund raising should be minimum
  5. Income & expenditure side should always be balanced by showing deficit or surplus.
  6. The budget should also provide for the additional amount necessary for giving increments or for new appointment.

Purpose of the Budgeting:

  • To assess the financial requirement of an agency
  • Starting a fund-raising campaign
  • Requesting various grant giving bodies for financial assistance
  • To indicate the lines on which money raised or received will be spent
  • To guide the staff of the agency about the manner of spending money on various schemes and heads of account

Method of Budgeting:

  1. Average of income/expenditure during the last three years
  2. Actual income/expenditure during the last year budgeted income/expenditure during the last year
  3. proposed income/expenditure during the previous year
  4. proposed income/expenditure for the next year

Tuesday, November 18, 2008

Child Labor in India


Large scale exploitation of children for a free or cheap labor has been a bane of Independent India. In India the estimates range from 20 million to 10 million children are engaged in a variety of industries, mines, dhaba as carpet making, plastic and rope weaving, diamond cutting, biscuit making.

It is estimated that from every 24 people, 18 are children who died in hunger in every one minute in India and so that hunger is called as a reason for making a child 'labor'.
The employment of children act, 1986, the factories act, 1948 are to prevent child from the hazardous work.

According to the child labor act-2006, "No child below the age of 14, should work in any hazardous place, dhaba, hotel or working as a domestic servant .

Other rules as:
No person, including a parent or guardian shall employ any child in any employment.
No person, including a parent or guardian shall deprive any child from access to
education by employing the child in any work.

If any person employs any child for any work
(i) if he is the parent or guardian of the child, he shall be punished with a fine of
rupees five thousand; and
(ii) if he is in charge of any factory, establishment or organisation, he shall be
punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend up to seven years and a fine
of rupees fifty thousand.
The provisions of this Act shall be in addition to and not in derogation of any other
law for the time being in force relating to child labor.

Dowry prohibition Act to reduce dowry System in India

Short Title
This Act is called as Dowry prohibition Act-1961.
Extension
This Act should extent to the whole of India except Jammu & Kashmir.

Definition of Dowry

In this Act, Dowry means any property or valuable security given or agreed to be given either directly or indirectly.

  • By one party to a marriage to the other party to the marriage
  • By the parents of either party to a marriage or by an other person, to either party to the marriage or to any other person
    It shall come into force on such date as the central Gov.t may, by notification in the official, appoint.

Section 2
Any demand or Dowry made before, at or after marriage, where such demand is made as a consideration for marriage would attract provisions of section 2 of the act- marriage would include a proposed marriage
Also voluntary presents given at or before or after the marriage to the bride or bride-groom, of a traditional nature which has given of love, affection or regard – Not to fall within mischief of expression “dowry” punishable under the act of 1996(3) crimes 35(SC).

Section-3
Section 3rd of the Dowry prohibition act relating to the offences of giving or taking of dowry is beeing amended in accordance with the recommendation of the joint committee to make the punishment for the offence more stringent.

Section-4
Section 4 of the act relating to penalty for demanding dowry is proposed to be amended to make the punishment thereunder more stringent on the lines recommended by the joint committee
Offence under the dowry prohibition act and under section, 406, IPC. Whether can stand together on the same set on facts.

Stridhan
The present given to a Hindu women at the time of marriage from part of her stridhan. Husband is only the trustee of the articles and can’t use them to the detriment of his wife without her concent.

Penalty for giving & taking dowry
If any person, after the commencement of this act, gives or takes or abets the giving or taking of dowry, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than five years & with fine which shall not be less then fifteen thousand rupees or the amount of the amount of the value of such dowry, whichever is more.

Dowry prohibition officer
To see the provisions of this act are complied with
To prevent, as far as possible, the taking or abetting or the demanding of dowry

Monday, November 17, 2008

Procedure to make Project Proposal

To achieve the goals and fulfill all objectives the initiatives, plannings which has organized in a systematic way is called project proposal.

The elements for making project proposal:

  1. Title
  2. Project overview or Introduction
  3. Background information/ statement of the problem
  4. Project detail
  5. Available resources
  6. Needed resources
Title:
Title means the Heading which is necessary for making a project. Title must be in a capsule form.The words which are use in title should clearly reflect over the project proposal. Title should be clear and unambiguous. Title must be meaningful and eye-catching so that captured by the funding agency very clearly.

Project overview or Introduction:
The project overview should in a short form because may the executive authority shouldn't have time to read the entire proposal and give a overview.
Project overview should “Paint a picture” of the proposal in the mind of the reader.
The project overview will probably from a strong impression in the mind of the reviewer.

Background information/statement of the problem:
Use the statement of the problem to show that your proposed project is definitely needed and should be funded.
It is essential to include a well documented statement of the need/problem that is a basis for the project.
It is a need to narrate ‘How do you know these problems are important.
Clearly indicate how the problems that will be addressed in your project will help the potential funding agency in fulfilling their own goals and objectives.

Project details:
The project details means details about the project as about the

  • Goal and Objectives of project proposal
  • The Target groups/Beneficiaries
  • What are the Activities should be done
  • Types of staff/administration
  • Time line to achieve the Goal

Available resources:
There have a need to present the available resources. The available resources may be the money, man power, machine etc. It is very impressive to a prospective funding agency if local resources have already been contacted and plans to include them in the project have already been made.

Needed resources:
Need resources means the resources which has been needed by the agency for its development and for proper implementation of the project.

The Concept of Voluntary Organisation

Voluntary organisation means a group of people working together voluntarily to help the needy persons with their available needs and resources. Voluntary organisations are initiated by individuals or groups of individuals voluntarily for development. Particularly for the disadvantaged sections of society. Voluntary organisation is organized for voluntary action.

Definition:
According to the David. L. Sills, “Voluntary organisation is a group of persons organized on the basis of voluntary membership without state control for the furtherance of some common interest of its members”.

Natures of Voluntary Organisation:

  • A group of people
  • Specific purpose
  • Work in multiple field
  • May be registered, may not be registered
  • Their programmes are based on social welfare
  • V.Os are receive funds from donor agencies
  • They make plan and programmes by their own
  • V.Os are non-formal
  • Having cooperation among the members

Characteristics:

  1. Membership of V.Os are purely voluntary
  2. V.Os are formed through the initiative of persons interest
  3. V.Os are neither formed nor run for profit making
  4. V.Os are governed by their own set of rules
  5. They have first hand experience and knowledge
  6. They are more closer to people

Principles and ideology of voluntary organisation:

  1. Voluntary organisations are working according to the need of the communities people
  2. Concerned with improving and increasing the services require by the community
  3. Helps groups, community to develop their skills
  4. Should work with the professional ethics
  5. It help people to help themselves
  6. Helps to secure People's participation

The Immoral Trafficking (Prevention)Act-1956

Background:

In 1950, the Government of India ratified an international convention for the suppression of Immoral Trafficking in persons and the exploitation of the prostitutions. Legislation on the subject of suppression of Immoral Trafficking are now widely followed by the member nations including India.

Short Title:
This Act may be called as Immoral Trafficking(prevention)Act, 1956.

Extension:
It extends to the whole of India except the state of Jammu & Kashmir.

Definition:
“Brothel” includes any house, room or place or any portion of any house, room or place, which is used for purposes of sexual exploitation or abuse for the gain of another person or for the mutual gain of two or more prostitutes.

Punishment for keeping a Brothel:
Any person who keeps or manage, or acts or assists in the keeping or management of a brothel shall be punishable on first conviction with rigorous imprisonment for a term of not less than one year and not more than three years and also fine as two thousand rupees.

Punishment for living on the earnings of prostitution:
Any person over the age of eighteen years who knowingly lives, wholly or in part, on the earnings of the prostitution of any other person shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term of two years, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees.

Detaining a person in premises where prostitution is carried on:
In any Brothel or any premises with intent that such person may have sexual intercourse with a person who is not the spouse of such person shall be punishable for not less than seven years, which may extend to ten years with liable fine.

Prostitution in the vicinity of public places:
Any person who carries on prostitution and the person with whom such prostitution is carried on, should be within a distance of two hundred meters of any place of public religious worship, educational institution, hostel, hospital, nursing home or such other public place other wise she/he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months.

Special Police Officer and advisory body:
The State Government appointed special police officer for such area to be specified by the state government for dealing with offences under this Act in that particular area.

Uses and Limitations of Social Statistics

Statistics is a science of facts and figures and nothing beyond that. It's a measurement of data and expression of the same in the numerical manner. It includes frequency distribution, measurement of central value or tendency, deviations, regressions, co-relations, t-test and goodness of fit.

Uses of social statistics:

  1. It is highly quantitative than qualitative
  2. Statistical method deals with two fundamental principles
  3. Statistical unit
  4. Statistical data must be manipulated
  5. Presentation of statistical data with the help of line-diagram

1. It is highly quantitative than qualitative:
Social statistics which present the data of an area must be numerous in nature. By which we can measure the tendency of a project.
In a little period, it also understand by everyone, when listen the percentage. So it is easy to record and easy to understand.

2. Statistical method deals with two fundamental principles:

  • Fundamental regularity based on mathematical probability
  • It says about capacity of the researcher

Fundamental regularity based on mathematical probability:
It states that every social phenomena is influenced by large number by variables, which are co-related and inter related and statistics ls to study this co-relation. Therefore the theory of probability, leniour programmes and shadow prices are used to find-out the reality.

It says about capacity of the researcher:
For substantiation of findings and conclusions, statistical jargon are necessary and it save the researcher/scholar from danger and challenges. It is the data, facts and figures which say the capacity of the researcher. The skills and the resources which is used by the researcher must be applied in its research finding.

3. Statistical Units:

Statistical unit has four characteristics as:

  • Appropriateness
  • Clarity
  • Measurability
  • Comparability

4. Statistical data must be manipulated:
The statistical data must be manipulated, divided and totaled to formulate some conclusions.

5. Presentation of statistical data with the help of line-diagram:
Presentation of statistical data with the help of line-diagram, graphs, charts, histogram, frequency, distribution, pie-diagrams etc.

Limitations of social statistics:

  1. Statistics is highly quantitative
  2. It’s not provide adequate data
  3. It can present time to time presentation of data

1. Statistics is highly quantitative:
Social statistics is totally based on number which never present a correct data, accurate information of an area which can be qualitative in nature. Only from the number and percentage, we can’t identify the accurate jargon.

2. It’s not provide adequate data:
The social statistics can’t provide adequate knowledge about a particular field as the data about population, age group, types of problem, causes of problem and the internal resources to solve that problem. It is only provide a figure as percentage.

3. It can present a data within a time limit:
The sensex data, annual budgeting, 5 year plans, these are the sources to get information of a field, which is officially correct but non-officially it’s not find as accurate. It’s only theoretically correct.

Computer Application in Social Work Research

Computer is an Electro Mechanical Device, use for processing data. It accepts data from user and process it and display a correct information as the out-put. Computer is rived from the Greek word, ‘Compute’, which means to calculate.


Components of Computer:

  • Data
  • Processing
  • Information

    Data:
    The logic behind the computer is called data. The facts, numbers, texts etc, which are enter into the computer by the user before calculation is called data. It can do arithmetic and logic operation during processing.

    Processing:
    It is the manipulation of data. To convert a data into useful information is called.

    Information:
    The processed data is called information. After processing, it converts to meaningful data.

Anatomy (Parts) of Computer:

  • Hardware
  • Software
  • User

    Characteristics of Computer:
  • Speed
  • Accuracy
  • Diligency
  • Versality
  • Storage capacity
  • Automation
  • Efficiency

Role of Computer in Social research:

  • It can solve any difficult problem within a few minute

  • It provide accurate Information

  • Store large number of data

  • Perform any types of arithmetic and logical operation

  • Design a data

  • It helps to make Networking with other Institutions

  • Help to collect data from out sources

  • Use as a Calculator














Tuesday, November 11, 2008

Non Communicable Diseases

Non communicable diseases are not communicate from one person to another. There have many types of non communicable diseases we found as

  1. Diabetes
  2. Hypertension
  3. Cancer

Diabetes:
The lack of Pancreas and pituitary is the main cause of Diabetes.

Types of Diabetes:

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetes Inspidous

Diabetes Mellitus:
It occurs due to lack of Insulin. Mainly people are suffer with diabetes mellitus than to inspidous.
There are three types of diabetes mellitus as :

  1. IDDM (Insulin Dependent diabetes Mellitus)
  2. NIDDM (Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus)
  3. Malnutrition related

Diabetes inspidous:

This types of disease is occur due to lack of ADH(Anti Diuretic Hormone)
Definition:
It is a chronic metabolic disorder which occurs due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin resulting polyurea, polydisia and polyphagia.


Symptoms:

Delay healing in wounds

Skin eruption

Prevention & control:

  • Primordial Prevention
  • Primary prevention
  • Secondary prevention
  • Tertiary prevention

Primordial and primary prevention:

  • Lifestyle change
  • Maintenance of body weight
  • Daily exercise
  • Avoid sugar

Secondary prevention:

  • The steps which are taken after the occurrence of a disease as:
  • Maintain Blood glucose level
  • Maintain ideal body weight
  • Maintain the diet
  • Anti diabetic drugs must be taken
  • Regular check-up of kidney, BP, eyes etc

Tertiary prevention:

  • The steps which has been taken after completion of any diseases or after iceberg or any disease.
  • Regularly consult the Doctor
  • Regular Check-up

Hypertension
High Blood pressure is the cause of Hypertension.
Hypertension is a chronic condition which effect heart, brain and blood vessels.
Blood supply by the heart to the different part of the body. It acts as a pumping machine.
It is a very difficult to define hypertension because its differ from person to person according to his age.
Generally when the pressure exerted by Blood towards the vessels wall called Blood Pressure.
The normal BP is about 120/80 mm. When the pressure is highly exerted by blood it called Hypertension.

Stages of Hypertension:
1st stage - No change
2nd stage – It effect heart, eye and artery
3rd stage – Signs and symptoms are appear

Others as:

  • Cardiac failure
  • pain in Heart
  • Brain stroke
  • Bleeding inside the eyes
  • Renal failure

Prevention & control of Hypertension:

  • Primordial Prevention
  • Primary prevention
  • Secondary prevention
  • Tertiary prevention

Primordial Prevention:

  • Free from stress
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Take nutritious food
  • Morning exercise, yoga

Primary prevention:

  • Population strategy
  • Hygysk strategy

Population strategy:

Use nutritious food, Maintenance of body weight, free from stress, yoga and morning exercise

Higysk strategy:
Identification of the problem, regular health check-up, health education about the complication

Secondary prevention:

  • Regular health check-up
  • Diet control
  • Morning walk
  • Reduction of salt

Tertiary prevention:
There have no tertiary prevention for hypertension because after the completion of disease the patient will suffer with cardiac, renal damage or brain stroke.
Cancer:
Cancer is a irregular and irreversible proliferation (Growth) of cell. Cancer may be regarded as a group of diseases characterized by Abnormal growth of cell. adjacent tissues

Causes of Cancer:

  • Environmental factor
  • Genetic factor

Environmental factor:

1. Occupational exposer
Exposer to heat, light, cold, chemical, chromium, dust etc.
2. Virus exposer
Hepatitis B & C virus
HIV & CMV Virus
3. Habit & lifestyle
Alcohol(Liver cancer)
Tobacco (it causes lung cancer, mouth & kidney cancer)
4. Dietary factor:
Fish (stomach cancer)
Beef (cancer in Intestine)
Genetic factor:
The genetic factor effected Minimum 10% of people. Rest 80-90% people suffered with cancer due to environment.

Prevention & control:

Primodial prevention:

  • Early diagnosis and treatment
  • Control of tobacco and alcohol
  • Occupational exposer

Primary prevention:

  • Loss of appetites
  • Weight loss
  • Bleeding from different part of the body

Secondary prevention:

  • Regular check-up
  • Hospital admission
  • Cancer registration

Tertiary prevention:

There have no tertiary prevention for cancer. The last stage of cancer leads to Death.





Monday, November 10, 2008

Types of Communicable Diseases

Types of Communicable Diseases:
communicable diseases are communicate from one person to another. There have many types of non communicable diseases we found as:

1. Respiratory Tract Infection(Small Pox, Whooping cough,TB etc.
2. Intestinal Infection(Typhoid, Cholera, Food poisoning etc.)
3. Zoonosis
(Rabies, Yellow fever,Plague etc.)
4. Surface Infection(Titanus, STD,AIDS etc.)


Tuberculosis(TB)
Tuberculosis is commonly known as TB effects millions of people every year. It was first discovered by Robert Koch in 1822. It is highly infectious disease that spreads from one person to another directly or indirectly. Every year more than 10 million people get affected by it in India.

Mode of Spread:
TB caused by Bacteria 'Mycobacterium Tuberculosis'.
TB spread by

  • Droplet Infection
    By inhaling the droplets thrown out into the air by the infected person while coughing, sneezing, talking or spitting
  • On contact with sputum or through contaminated food, water or clothes

Part of the body infected:
Tuberculosis bacteria can be infect any part of the body, mainly to the bone, Lymph, gland, brain or lung.

Symptom:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Gradual weakening of the body
  • A typical fever pattern
  • Pain in Chest and throat
  • Loss of body weight

Technical and medical arrangement:

  • Clinic system
  • Hospital and Sanitarium
  • Admit patient in hospital
  • Tuberculosis colonies should arranged near sanitarium or clinic
  • Coordination with the health officer, Doctors and dispensaries

Cholera

Cholera is a highly infectious disease. It is commonly called as "Haiza". Since it spreads through water, it is more common during fairs and after floods. If proper sanitary and hygienic conditions are not maintained, it spread over a large population that is takes an epidemic form.

Mode of Spread:

Cholera is caused by the bacterium 'vibrio cholerae fig'. It is mainly a water borne disease. It is transmitted by flies and spread rapidly where sanitation is poor.

Symptom:

  • Loose motion and vomiting
  • Patient feels thirsty
  • Weakness
  • Loss of appetites

Prevention and control:

  • Boiled water should be used
  • Avoid eating outside during epidemic
  • Drain should be kept neat & clean

Rabies

Rabies is a serious and highly infectious disease which results due to the bite of a rabbit(mad dog) or some other mammals like monkey, cat or rabbit. It is a fatal disease if not treated properly and on time.

Causes and mode of Infection:

Rabies is caused by a rabies virus which is present in the saliva of infected animals. If effects the Brain of the animal.

Symptoms:

In human, symptoms of the disease may not be expressed up to 1-3 months after infection. But it may develop anytime between 10 days to 1 year.

  • Mental depression
  • severe headache
  • high fever
  • expressive pain in the throat, muscles and chest
  • Severe damage to central nervous caused paralysis & painful death

Prevention & control:

  1. Clean the wound thoroughly with large amount of medicated soap and clean water. Apply antiseptic medicine and leave the wound open
  2. Consult with the Doctor for anti-rabies vaccine without delay. Use of Minimum 14 anti-rabies vaccine
  3. Pet dogs should always be vaccinated with anti-rabies vaccine

STD

STD we means the Sexual Transmitted Disease. This is a specific group of communicable disease that are transmitted through unsafe sexual contacts with multiple partners. There are five classical diseases included in STD as:-

  1. Gonorrhoea
  2. Syphilis
  3. Chancroid
  4. Lympho granuloma venereum
  5. Donovanosis

Causes of STD:

  • Broker homes causes sexual disharmony
  • Urbanization and Industrialization
  • Alcoholism
  • Family disturbance
  • International travelling
  • Weekend in defence service

Control and prevention:

  • Aware common people & sex worker
  • Counselling

Types of Diseases

A Disease is a disturbed state of body or mind. The term 'Disease' itself means without ease or discomfort. The disease can be in any part of the body and due to malfunctioning of the body organ for some or the other reason. For time immemorial, man has tried to understand the nature and cause of diseases and has tried to cure them.

Types of Diseases:

  1. Congenital Disease
  2. Acquired Disease


Congenital Disease

These diseases are present at the time of birth. They could be due to genetic defect or due to malfunctioning of any organ or system. They are permanent and generally not curable.

Acquired Disease:

The acquired diseases develop after Birth and can be broadly classified into two types.

  • Communicable disease
  • Noncommunicable disease

Communicable Disease:

Communicable disease are those diseases that can be spread from diseased persons to a healthy person. They are transmitted from water, food, physical contact and insects.

Types of Communicable disease:

  1. Respiratory Tract Infection(Small Pox, Whooping cough,TB etc.)
  2. Intestinal Infection(Typhoid, Cholera, Food poisoning etc.)
  3. Zoonosis(Rabies, Yellow fever,Plague etc.)
  4. Surface Infection(Titanus, STD,AIDS etc.)

Sunday, November 9, 2008

Policy on Agriculture

The Orissa Government declare a new agriculture policy. "The draft has been prepared and placed a new plan." The chief aim of the proposed policy is to increase farmer's earning and achieve four percent growth in the agriculture sector in the state by 2011-2012. There have a plan to increase of production of food grains like paddy, wheat, maize, ragi, millets, cereals and pulses. The Government aims to produce around Five lakh quintals of certified paddy seeds by raising seed villages in each Block. It has also decided to set up seed processing plants in each district by 2009-2010.

Types of Cooperatives

  • Marketing Cooperatives
  • Processing Cooperatives
  • Cooperative sugar mills
  • Dairy cooperatives
  • Fertilizer cooperatives
  • Industrial Cooperatives

Marketing Cooperatives

The need for the Marketing was realized in view of the growing malpractices prevailing in buying and selling of agricultural produce. The producers were not getting the due share of their agricultural produce. The producers were not getting the due share of their agricultural produce. The producers were not getting the due share of their agricultural produce. The producers were not getting the due share of their agricultural produce. The producers were not getting the due share of their agricultural produce. They were forced to sell their produce on through away prices. So as to protect Farmers, marketing cooperatives emerged after the enactment of Cooperative Societies Act 1912.

Processing Cooperatives:

In order to reduce the number of middlemen and to obtain a greater return on the agricultural produce, processing of crops by Marketing Cooperatives was felt to be necessary. This resulted in the emergence of processing Cooperatives, such as those, (For paddy processing, ginning and cotton baling, rice mills and those for pulses and gradually the operation was extended to fruits and vegetables, cashew, rubber and cocoa.

Cooperative Sugar Mills:

The 2nd five year plan also included a programme for starting cooperative sugar factories. In the middle of 1958, licenses under the industries Act 1951 were granted to 38 cooperative sugar factories. By 2002, the number of cooperative sugar factories had increased to 381 of which 137 were in Maharashtra. The Cooperative sector contributes nearly 59% of the total sugar produce in the country.

Dairy Cooperatives:

Dairy in India is closely interwoven with Agriculture and plays an important role in the rural economy. Besides having vast employment potential, dairy provides not only milk, but also stabilizes farm incomes. Small farmers and landless Laborers account for 53% of the animals and 51% of milk production. With the declaration of the National Policy on Dairying in 1956, the growth and development of dairy cooperatives received a major boost.

Fertilizer Cooperatives:

With the growing population and the increasing demand for food grains, pressure continued on farmers to grow more. So as to increase productivity, farmers were required to ensure adequate and quality inputs at reasonable prices.

Industrial cooperatives:

The 2nd five year plan recognised the need for developing village and small scale industries on cooperative basis as far back as the 1950s. The Industrial cooperatives have a three-tier structure, availability of raw materials and marketing due to competition and Modernization.

Friday, November 7, 2008

Cooperation and Cooperatives

The word cooperation has been many meanings, but in general discourse it means working, living and thinking together. In our existing socio-economic context, however, we need to define it somewhat differently - " Cooperation is a form of organization wherein persons voluntarily associate with each other as human beings on the basis of equality for the promotion of mutual economic interests."

Definition:
According to the International cooperative alliance, "A cooperative is an association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural need."

Principles of Cooperation:
  1. Voluntary and open membership
  2. democratic member control
  3. member's economic participation
  4. Autonomy and Independent
  5. Education, training and information
  6. cooperation among cooperatives
  7. Concern for Community

Types of Cooperatives:

  • Marketing Cooperatives
  • Processing Cooperatives
  • Cooperative sugar mills
  • Dairy Cooperatives
  • Fertilizer Cooperatives
  • Industrial Cooperatives

Salient Features of Indian Constitution

The Indian Constitution
The Indian constitution represents the vision and values of its founding fathers and is based on the social, political and economic ethos as well as, the faith and aspiration of the people. The Constitution of India was made by a Constituent Assembly which was specially convened to frame the Constitution of the country. The Constituent Assembly was set up under the cabinet Mission Plan of May 16, 1946.

Salient Features of Indian Constitution Written Constitution
  1. Written Constitution-In a federation there should be a written Constitution. The written Constitution is very essential for a federal so that whenever there is any dispute between the federal government and the federating units, it can be use as a evidence.   
  2. Largest Constitution - In sheer physical terms our Constitution is definitely the largest, bulkiest and most detailed constitution in the World. As originally passed, it contained 395 Articles and 8 schedules.Whereas, the constitution of U.S.A. originally contained 7 Articles, Canada 147 Articles, and Australia 128 Articles.
  3. Sovereign, Democratic & Republic
    A sovereign nation is initially supreme and independent of any outside control. The word socialist aims at the establishment of an egalitarian society in India. The term 'secular' means a state which has no official religion. The best definition of Democracy was given by Abraham Lincoln that, "it is a government by the people, of the people and for the people." The word republic signifies that the Head of our state is elected and not hereditary.
  4. Parliamentary type of Government
    In a parliamentary type of government the Head of the State is nominal, whereas the Prime Minister who is the leader of the majority in the Parliament is the real executive.The Indian constitution establishes in India a parliamentary type of government on the British Model.
  5. Partly Unitary and partly Federal
    India's constitution has been variously described as quasi-federal, federal with a strong unitary or pro-centre bias, federal in structure but unitary in spirit, federal in normal times but with possibilities of being converted into a purely unitary one during emergency.
  6. Partly Rigid & partly Flexible
    There are certain provisions which can be amended by a simple majority in the [parliament. While there are certain provisions whose amendment requires not only a special majority in Parliament but also ratification by at least one-half of the state legislature.
  7. Fundamental Rights
    Under Indian Constitution as originally enacted, the citizen of
    India had been granted the seven fundamental rights.A full chapter has been devoted to the description of these fundamental lrights running into 24 articles. These rights are mentioned in part III of the constitution and are justiciable.
  8. Fundamental Duties
    The 42
    nd Amendment to the Constitution added a new part to the constitution under the heading Fundamental Duties. It lays down a code of ten duties for all the citizens of India.
  9. DPSP
    The Directive Principle of State Policy concept has been borrowed from the constitution of Ireland. These principles are contained in part IV of our Constitution. The aim of these principles is to establish a welfare state in India on the socialistic pattern of society.
  10. Independent Judiciary
    The
    Indian constitution provides for an independent judiciary. The constitution made the supreme court as the custodian and protector of the constitution.The judgement of the supreme court are legally binding and there is no appeal against the judgement of the Supreme Court.
  11. A Secular State
    Under the 42
    nd amendment this word 'Secular' has been included in the preamble of our constitution. Thus, India has been now officially become a secular state.
  12. Single Citizenship
    The constitution of India grants only one citizenship to all citizens. In a federation sometimes a citizen gets double citizenship, one of the Union and the other of State in which a person lives.
  13. Universal Adult Franchise
    The Indian constitution originally granted universal adult franchise to all those men and women, who
    attained the age of 21 years.Under the 61st amendment6 of the Indian Constitution the age of voting has been reduced from 21 to 18 years.
  14. Official Language of India
    A provision was made in our constitution to declare Hindi in the
    Devanagiri script as the official language of India. Till that time English was to continue as the official language.

Indian Constitution


A Constitution is the supreme law of the land. It is the basic structure which defines the powers of the state and its organs, as well as the rights and duties of the citizens.

The Constitution of India was made by a Constituent Assembly which was specially convened to frame the Constitution of the country. The Constituent Assembly was set up under the cabinet Mission Plan of May 16, 1946.

The Salient Features of Indian Constitution

  1. Written constitution
  2. Largest constitution
  3. Sovereign, Democratic, Republic
  4. Parliamentary form of Government
  5. Partly Unitary and Partly Federal
  6. Partly Rigid and Partly Flexible
  7. Fundamental rights
  8. Fundamental Duties
  9. Directive principles of state policy
  10. Independent judiciary
  11. A Secular state
  12. Single citizenship
  13. Universal adult Franchise
  14. Provision of Emergency
  15. Official language of India

Tuesday, November 4, 2008

Poverty, Hunger and Starvation worldwide

Poverty:
Absolute poverty, hunger, disease and illiteracy afflict more than one fifth of the world's population. Over 120 million people worldwide are officially unemployed and many more underemployed. More women than men live in absolute poverty and the imbalance continues to grow. Each day, more than 40,000 children die from the scourges of poverty, which includes hunger, malnutrition, disease, and epidemics.

Poverty manifest itself in many forms, including lack of income and productive resources sufficient to ensure sustainable livelihood, hunger and Mal-nutrition, ill health, limited or lack of access to education.

Hunger & Starvation
In today's scenario, more than one billion people are chronically hungry. Every year 13 to 18 million people die as a result of hunger and starvation. Every 24 hours, 35,000 human beings die as a direct or indirect result of hunger and starvation. In every 24 minutes 18 of whom are children under five years of age. The Wold Bank, in a different but no less serious language estimates that in 1980, 340 million people in developing countries did not have enough income to attain a minimum food energy standard, while 730 million fell below a standard that would allow an active working life.

Sunday, November 2, 2008

Leader & Leadership quality

Leader:
In a complex society of today the concept of leadership has perhaps attracted the attention of every Individual in the society. From home, institution to form a nation Leadership is essential.

Leadership means “To Lead”.
Leadership is one who have the quality of advancement, prominent and excel. Leader is success with the follower. A Leader is one who motivate & take in confidence to the all group members.

Definition:
According to Sheriff & Sheriff,” A Leader is the member with the top status in an organizational hierarchy.”

Role & Functions of a Leader:

  • Skill of interpretational relationship
  • Build group structure
  • Planning & decision making
  • Policy maker
  • Executive
  • Expert
  • External representative of the group
  • Having available information
  • Purveyor of rewards & punishments
  • Mediator
  • Exemplar

Types of Leadership:

I. Autocratic Leader
Autocratic Leader is one who don’t give scope to the any other members and take group decisions by their own will. They are very much selfish in nature.

II. Democratic Leader
Target is always made by the Leader but she/he can give independence scope the group members to provide their own opinion.

III. Visionary Leader
Visionary Leader is one who have a ambition, vision to achieve the goal as our former President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

IV. Transformational Leader
With the revolutionary mind , the leader who achieve the goal & change the society in some extend is called as a Transformational Leader.
Exp: Subhash ch. Bose

V. Charismatic Leader:
These types of Leader are called as God gifted Leader. They have some in-born quality to tackle any situation easily and achieve the goal more positively.

VI. Man made Leader:
The Leader who lead through power, sympathy is a Man made Leader.

Saturday, November 1, 2008

Social case work & its other functions

Social case work :

Social case work is a work perform by a Social Worker with a case or a individual to solve her/his problems and help in that extent that she/he can adjust and develop within the society. It’s used by the professional Social Worker. The social work deals with the psycho-socio problem of an individual.

Definition:
1st. According to Safrad, ”Social Case Work is a method employed by a social worker to help individual, find a solution of their problem of social adjustment which they are unable to handle in a satisfactory way by their own effort.”

2nd. Mary Richmond (In 1917) defined,” Social Case Work may be defined as the Art of doing different things with different people, co-operating with them to achieve some of their own & societies betterment.”

Objectives of Social Case Work:

  • To make good Rapport with the common people
  • To find-out, understand & solve the internal problems of an Individual
  • To strengthen ones ego power
  • To prevent problem
  • To develop internal resources

    Nature & Characteristics of Case Work:
  • Relationship arise out of shared & emotionally charged situation
  • Relationship contains elements of acceptance, expectation, support & stimulation
  • Client & case worker are interdependent
  • Case work relationship may have several therapentic values:
  • Improvement of condition
  • More adjustment within the society
  • Development of personality
  • Capacity building
  • Relationship needs outside help
    Case worker too has relationship reactions and part of and part of ones professional skills in their management
    Components/elements of case work:

    1) Purpose & concern for the Cline system
    A purpose to find-out internal problems & try to solve it and a concern to make good rapport, feel ones feelings and aims at individualized service

    2) Expectation at three level
    -Expectation of the case worker from the client, how the case worker feels about the clients ability & what extend client support anybody
    -Expectation of the client from the Case worker
    -Positive result in the period of interaction

    3) Accuracy of Empathy and clear communication
    - Think positively in others point of view
    - What extent you are sympathetic
    - Ability to perceive & communicate accurately & feel
    - Case worker should be sensitive to express feelings towards client by voice, posture and good communication

    4) Non Possessive warmth
    Give respect, acceptance, liking, caring and concern for the client in a non- dominating way.

    5) Genuineness and acceptance
    Case worker mist be practical in nature. He must be a person of genuineness being real, honest in their approach and never go beyond her/his limit.

    6) Authority
    Case worker must have a capacity to handle any situation, being resourceful and helpful
    Having knowledge, attitude, experience and a position to identify and solve internal problem of client

    Principles of Case work:

    I. Individualization
    II. Purposeful expression of feelings
    III. Control of Emotion
    IV. Self determination
    V. Acceptance
    VI. Principle of non-judgmental attitude
    VII. Principle of Confidentiality

    I. Individualization:
    Individualization means analyze an individual not from a single aspect but from a various of aspects. Every Individual is different from others & unique in itself. Problem of every individual is different from another & depend upon her/his intelligence, so the mode of helping (Technique) must be according to the Intellectual level, socio-economic situation and ego strength, ones capacity and resource.

    II. Purposeful expression of feelings :
    Case worker must give the chance to the client to express her/his feelings freely, especially her/his negative feelings because maximum time feelings are negative in nature. The case worker listen purposefully clients feelings neither praising nor condemning. Don’t point out any one as good or bad because of ones psycho-social problems.

    III. Control emotional involvement:
    Without feel any ones emotion with sensitivity it’s impossible to find-out her/his problem & get a solution of that problem.
    Emotion comes from 3 ways as
    - Sensitivity
    -Understanding
    -Response

    IV. Self determination:
    Self determination we means let the client to take her/his own decision in own way, give chance her/him to decide, what is Wright or wrong for them.

    V. Acceptance:
    A case worker must be accept an individual as a person of “worth & dignity”, not treat as a problem and always accept ones positive feelings don’t negative feelings

    VI. Non-Judgmental attitude:
    A Case worker mustn’t have the right to judge any one as guilty or innocent.

    VII. Principle of Confidentiality:
    Case work relationship have a principle to take the problems of the client in a confidence to remain secret.

Profit making & Non-profit making Organizations for Locality Development


  • Organization:
    Organization we mean an Institution, an association consisting of a group of people having common aim and objective, working in a common platform.

    The concept of Organization:
    The modern civilized society is characterized by a large number of Organization. Our society in a way is an organizational society. We are not only live in and work through organizations but satisfy most of our desires & fulfill our aspirations through organizations. The term organization is used in different ways to mean different things.

    Profit making organization:
    The organizations which are working for their benefit as well as for the benefit of the common people are called as the Profit Making Organization.
    Types of Profit-making Organization

  • Cooperatives

  • SHGs

  • Governmental Organizations

  • Corporate sectors

  • Industries

  • Educational Institutions

    Cooperatives:
    Cooperative is an Institution/association of persons united together to meet their common economic, social& cultural needs. Its main aim is to improve the economic condition of the rural poor.
    The marketing cooperatives are strengthen the bargaining capacity, secure the cultivator a better price for their produce, eliminate the middle men& money lander. The paddy processing, rice mills, cotton baling are also made for obtaining a greater return. The cooperative sector contributes nearly 59% of the total Sugar produce % 51% of Milk produce. There have also 5-6 crore women are working in the 90,00 Cooperative sectors.
    Though the cooperatives are the profit making organizations, working for its own profit.

    SHGs:
    The self help groups are those small organizations, generally consists of its 11 members in a group, their activities are thrift and credit. They save a small person of their earning, which they deposit in the Bank.The members join in the group for their own interest and development.

    Governmental Organizations:
    The Governmental Organizations are working for the betterment of the society as well as for the benefit of its own. The Organizations as Bank, Medical, School and colleges, Police departments are comes under those groups, where people are working for earning money.


    Corporate sector:
    The corporate sector has made some contributions for the societal development but all its efforts are through the individual Institutions. The main aim of these sector is to strengthen its capacity and development of industrial, commercial sector.

    Industries:
    Industrialization, in its narrow sense, refers to the system of Factory production. It has rightly been described as the second wave of change in human civilization. Through Industries, a high degree of labor mobility takes place. There have also growth in marketing and commercial centres for sell of consumer goods and through increase of medical technology & standard of living.

    Educational Institutions:
    Most of the private educational Institutions are depends upon the donation & tuition fees of its students & trust from its core members. Though they provided best efforts in the field of education, their main aim is earn money for the development of the institution.

    Non-Profit making Organization:
    Non profit making organization we means, the organizations which are working for the betterment of the common people without having any self interest.

    Types of no-profit making Organization:
  • Voluntary organization
  • NGO
  • CBOs
  • Funding agencies
  • Youth club

    Voluntary Organization:
    VOs means, a group of people working together voluntarily to help the needy persons with their available needs & resources. They are the non-profit making organizations who are working for the welfare of the common, needy people without any interest. The Harijan Sevak Sangha, Kasturbagandhi Memorial Trust, Tata Institute of Social Sciences are the voluntary organizations , who are working for the needy people & in the field to provide basic rights to them.

    NGOs:
    The non governmental organizations are working for the socio, economic & environmental development of the common people. In India there have thousands of Private organizations, who are working both in the Rural & Urban areas for the betterment of the common people, who are need help.

    CBOs:
    The Community Base Organizations are the organizations who are working for the betterment of the common people within the Community according to the need & available resource of the community people.They are generally small in size.


Funding Agencies:
Funding agencies are both Governmental & Non-Governmental in nature. They mobilize & utilize funds, money for the development of an Individual & a group. They raise fund, to generate expected benefit for an individual/group or community. The Dorabji Tata-Rural Welfare Trust, UNIFEM, UNICEF, OXFAM, Action Aid are working for the development of the people on the field of Education, health, agriculture and rural development of the people.

Youth Club:
Youth Clubs are organizations of the young people. In most cases, youth clubs exist to serve the recreational needs of the young people. But they also get involved in various Social works, such as running Literacy centres, organizing relief for flood victims, conducting festivals, melas and awareness campaigns.

Profit making organization:

  • Working for their own benefit
  • Depends on funding & cash
  • They work to earn money
  • Work only for the benefit of the organization
  • They work according to the organizational norms
  • They work for a specific period of time

    Non-Profit making Organization:
  • Working for the betterment of the society
  • They don't depend upon any fund for social welfare
  • They are working for the community benefit
  • Work voluntarily for the common people
  • They believe on immediate action
  • There have no time limit to help the needy people

The Concept of Drug Abuse

Drug:
Drug is high dose of medicine , it may be Alcohol or any other abuse which stimulate the Brain. Whatever the root may be drug enter into the body & mix with Blood. Every toxic enter into the liver 1st. after processing in liver it is trafficking to the other parts of body.

Abuse:
Abuse means the drug which is taken without the consult of Doctor.

Drug abuse as drug dependence:
Drug abuse or substance abuse is recently named by the World Health Organisation (WHO), as drug dependence.
It’s named like that, because when a person totally depend upon drug for a long time he/she has a fear of withdrawal syndrome. Because Brain demand drug because of its habit. So Drug is also called as a Brain Disease.

Functions of Drug:
· It stimulate the Brain Cell
· Block ones thought process
· Create Euphoria (Extreme happiness which remain for a while)
· Create Schizophrenia

The ways of taking Drugs:
§ Inhalation – Through nose
§ Ingestion – Through Mouth
§ Injection – Through Blood