Friday, October 31, 2008

Personality and its Theory

Personality:
Personality we mean out-word appearance, inner self & an interaction between two.Personality is derived from the Greek word, “Personnare” which means to speak through. It’s a mask approach, outer appearance.
Personality is believe as out word appearance by Roman Identity. They identify ones personality through mask.Difference characteristics of an individual as real capability, uniqueness, expression, attitude, dress-up and good personality is because of inner self.Personality is a dynamic state of mind. It’s changeable with the time, situation. Personality is “The some total of individual behaviour”.
Personality is-

  1. The dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho physical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment
  2. The relative consists pattern of behaviour, thinking & feeling distinguish one from another. Personality is unique from person to person.
    One can adjust with the society because of personality.

Nature & Characteristics of personality:
1) Personality reflects individual difference
2) Personality is consists & enduring
3) Personality is a result of heredity, environmental factors & the situation conditions
4) Personality can dynamic (changeable)

1. Personality reflects individual difference:
Personality is different from person to person. The way of thinking, behaviour, feelings and attitude of a person is different that to others.Any ones personality is different & based upon his family, surrounding environment & situation.

2. Personality is consisting & enduring:
Personality of a person is consistent means, it’s constantly stay with a person. Personality of a person is like a shadow of a body. It’s may changeable but constant and enduring. It’s a never ending process.

3. Personality is a result of heredity, environmental factors & the situation conditions:
Some behaviour, attitude of a person comes from his for-father, through genes & chromosomes. So it’s called hereditary. It’s also environmental because when a child grow up she/he can observe & learn many things from her/his family, pioneer group, culture and social institution. According to which a person s personality is build up.

4. Personality is dynamic:
Personality is those dimension, which is change from person to person and time to time and place to place. Either in a Institution or in a home, in a different place we behave differently.

Theories of Personality
1) Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud’s Theory)
2) Type Theory
3) Trait Theory
4) Neo-Freudian Personality Theory
5) Social Learning Theory
6) Self Theory


1. Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud’s Theory):
Psychoanalytic schools of thought is a popular school of thought. It’s headed by Sigmo & Freud. According to the Psychoanalytic theory all the behaviour of a person is due to the instinct (Inner urge) and its instinct is based on Birth (Libido) & death (Thanatos).Libido is called as the source of energy whereas Thanatos is for depression. Those who influence with Livido is always positive in nature.
According to Freud There have 3 Layers of mind:
-Consciousness
-Unconsciousness
-Sub-consciousness
There have also 3 structures of human mind;
-Id
-Ego
-Super ego


2. Type Theory:
Jung’s Psychognomy Theory
Sheldon’s Psychognomy Theory
Jung’s Psychognomy Theory:
Jung’s Theory is different from Freud”s Theory.
He has taken 4 dimensions for the building of personality as-
-Sensing Thinking
-Instituting Thinking
-Sensing Feeling
-Intuiting feeling
Taking this four dimensions he gave 2 dimensions of Personality as-
1.Extrovert
2.Introvert
Extrovert:
Ø Extroverts are those, who are the out-going, optimistic, gregarious
Ø They are sociable
Ø They are reality oriented and practicable
Ø They believe in doing rather than thinking
Ø They like interaction with others

Introvert:
Ø They are much in word directed
Ø Less sociable
Ø They are guided by their own idea & Philosophy
Ø They are subjective oriented
Ø They are calm & quite
Ø They like solitude

Sheldon’s Theory:
According to Sheldon there have 3 types of personality as-
Ø Endomorphos (Characteristics – Jovial, Bulky)
Ø Mesomorphos (Strong, athletic )

Ø Ectomorts (Avoid social contact, remain absent of mind)

3. Trait Theory:
Trait means the quality and characteristics.. All ports theory given-
*Social
*Political
*Religious
R.B.Cattles given two types of trait:
Surface trait (Invisible)
Source Trait (Visible)

4. Neo-Freudian Theory:
Neo-Freudian criticized the Freud’s theory. Waston is great supporter of this theory. According to him the personality of an individual is not for the instinct but only for the behaviour.

5. Social learning Theory:
Social learning means learn from society. It can happen by
-Observation
-Modelling

Social learning process has some phases as
*Attention
*Retention
*Motor production
*Reinforcement process

6. Self theory:
Self esteem is two types-
*How you value yourself

*How other value you
Self theory defines self as 2 types as-
*High self (Prestige conscious & Take more risks)
*Low self (Blame others & discuss about others)

Blood and its Functions

Meaning of Blood:
Blood is a liquid connective tissue, consists of Plasma (Fluid part) and Cell (Solid part).
Functions of Blood:
  • Blood carry Oxygen and essential nourishment through arteries to every living tissue in the body.
  • Carbon Dioxide and waste products such as urea are removed by the Blood through Veins.
  • It controls body temperature
  • Blood defends against infections
  • Blood is act as a transported of all gases and supply to different part of body.
  • It is also called as the Defence mechanism.It fight against Bacteria & prevent entry of organism

The quantity of Blood:

A healthy man has about 5 Litre of Blood in the body, while a women has about 500ml. less than man.

Constituents of Blood:

There are two main constituents of Blood as Solid or Cellular part"Blood Cell"(consisting of 35%) & Fluid or humoral part called "Plasma"(65%).

Types of Blood Cell:

  1. RBC (Red Blood Corpuscles)
  2. WBC (White Blood Corpuscles)
  3. Platelets

RBC:

The RBC, which are called Erythrocytes are disc shaped cells. It is visible under a microscope. They have no nucleus. It contain a pigment called Haemoglobin which gives Blood its red color. Haemoglobin is composed of an Iron containing pigment called haema and a protein called globin. In a normal human being the amount of haemoglobin is about 14-15.6 cubic whereas in a woman it is about 11-14 grams. RBCs are produced in the spleen and the bone-marrow at the rate of 1.2 million corpuscles per second. In a life time the Bone marrow creates about half a tone of RBC.

RBC formation of a baby started from the 3rd week of intra-uterin life.

Functions of RBC:

  • Haemoglobin in the RBC picks up Oxygen in the lung tissue by forming a chemical compound with it
  • Oxygen reactions with the products of digestion in order to produce energy
  • Carbon dioxide produced in these reactions and returns to the lungs via the heart where cycle starts again

Value of RBC:
6000 to 11,000

WBC:

  • The WBC are the White blood corpuscles are the soldier of the body's defend system. They are a little larger than RBC.

Functions of WBC:

Neutrophils are attack the invading bacteria. Lymphocytes are second, they produce anti-bodies. Antibodies protect the body against antigen, foreign substance like Bacteria, viruses, toxins etc.

Value of WBC:

3 million to 5 million

Blood Platelets:

This is a substance which sets off blood clotting, a mechanism that seals tears in Blood Vessels. Blood Platelets live only for a few hours.

Value of Platelets:

450,000 to 1150,000

Thursday, October 30, 2008

Human Rights in Indian Context

The concept of Human Rights in its expanding comprehension, has now travelled to encompass what are called "third generation" rights which includes : right to self determination, right regarded as belonging to people rather than individual, right to sovereignty over natural wealth and resources of the country and, right to development as well as rights of disadvantaged groups to special protection. Thus the road travelled by Human Rights movement has been historic and impressive.

Growing realization of governments, activists, elite, opinion builders and constitutionalists that constitutions of most of the nations believing in rule of law incorporate explicitly or implicitly the provisions of various International Covenants on Human Rights in one way or the other. For example, the Founding Fathers in India incorporated in the Constitution most of the rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration in two parts - the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principle of State Policy that covered almost the entire field of Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The first set of rights enunciated in Article 2 to 21 of the Declaration and incorporated under the Fundamental Rights. Article 12 to 35 of the Constitution and the second set of rights enunciated in Article 22 to 28 of the Declaration are incorporated under Directive Principles - Article 36 to 51 of the Constitution. This led to the realization that Human Rights have a significant role to play in the national context.

Domestic Violence in India


Domestic Violence in India
Domestic Violence can be described as when one adult in a relationship misuses power to control another. It is the establishment of control and fear in a relationship through violence and other forms of abuse. The violence may involve physical abuse, sexual assault and threats. Sometimes it’s more subtle, like making someone feel worthless, not letting them have any money, or not allowing them to leave the home. Social isolation and emotional abuse can have long-lasting effects as well as physical violence. Domestic Violence isn't just hitting, or fighting, or an occasional argument. It's an abuse of power. The abuser tortures and controls the victim by calculated threats, intimidation, and physical violence.

Although both men and women can be abused, in most cases, the victims are women. Children in homes where there is domestic violence are also abused or neglected. Although the woman is usually the primary target, violence is sometimes directed toward children, and sometimes toward family members and friends.Many women in India are the victims of domestic abuse.

Domestic violence is a CRIME and you must seek help.Domestic violence:Domestic violence can take many forms and variations and can happen once in a while or all at the same time. Domestic violence can be Psychological Abuse, Social Abuse, Financial Abuse, Physical Assault or Sexual Assault. Violence can be criminal and includes physical assault or injury (hitting, beating, shoving, etc.), sexual abuse ( forced sexual activity), or stalking.

How children can get affected by domestic violence at home:
1)
Children can themselves get physically abused or hurt.
2) Witnessing violence actions can be mentally damaging
Children often try to intervene to protect the adult victim, which puts them in a dangerous situationChildren can copy the violent behaviour they witness, both as children and as adults.They may develop stress-related problems in health.They can loose self- confidence, bafraid/angry, and blame themselves for what is happening or feel guilty.

Globalisation in India

Globalisation in India:
As economies globalise and integrate with each other, little thought has been paid to its political fall outs or on the free movement of professionals across borders, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said Monday.
'When we talk of globalisation or on a border less world, the focus has largely been on the movement of goods, capital and, largely, financial and logistical services,' the prime minister told a seminar on globalisation here.

'There is as yet no framework for the movement of people,' he told the seminar, organised by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (Ficci) where the speakers included Nobel laureates Amartya Sen and Joseph E. Stiglitz.
According to Manmohan Singh, even in a globalised world, states do have a role to play especially in basic education, public health and medical care, even as the private sector can bring prosperity to entrepreneurs and workers.

'While economists have paid attention to economic consequences of globalisation and the management of economic globalisation, not much attention has been paid to the politics of globalisation and its political management,' he said.
'The UN could have been a political instrument of managing globalisation, but so far it has not succeeded. It will not be able to succeed unless it reforms as an institution and its own management is more democratic and more representative.'

'Globalisation must deliver on its promises to the poor and disadvantaged, most of whom live in the developing world,' said Commerce and Industry Minister Kamal Nath, at the seminar - 'Making globalisation Work: An India Perspective'.
'In order not to discredit itself, globalisation would have to squarely address sustainable development and poverty reduction,' he said, adding global rules for trade did not appreciate the adverse impact of rapid liberalization.

He said for India this aspect was at the core of the ongoing global trade talks, coupled with the need for fair trade by substantial and effective reductions in agricultural subsidies and protection provided by the developed countries.

Tribal Culture & Its dimension

Introduction:
Culture is a way of life. It is a never ending process. It's called as an overflowing process. Like the culture of other Community, tribal people have also their own unique culture which is totally different from the non-tribal culture. Tribal culture has various dimensions. These are as follows:

Dimensions of Tribal Culture:
  1. Social dimension
  2. Political dimension
  3. Religious dimension
  4. Economic dimension

1. Social dimension:

Social dimension means the social life of the Tribals. Man is a social animal. As living within the Society they have so many aspects related to their life.These are:-

a. Family life

b. Youth dormitory

c. Marriage alliance

d. Art & Craft Literature

a. Family life

There have four types of Family in a Tribal culture As-

  • Simple family
  • Joint family
  • Patriarchal Family
  • Matriarchal family

Simple family: Simple family is called as the nucleus family. These types of family believes in Monogamy that means one husband-one wife principle.

Joint family: Some types of tribal people practices Poligamous. That means one husband-more wife or one wife more husband. We found that types of practice in Naga, Santal, Ho etc.

Patriarchal family: In a patriarchal family Father is the house holder. Mainly in the Patriarchal family father dominate the other family members.

Matriarchal family: It's mainly mother dominated family where mother is the head of the house hold.

b.Youth dormitory:

Youth dormitory or the Bachelor Hall of the Tribals called as "Gotul". Bhuyans called it as Dhngra Bassa. It's the centre of music, dance, learning. It's a social & cultural Institution.

Surprising aspect of Tribal culture is Gotul where the senior girls teach the Junior boys about Sex relation. The young boy & girls are follow to stay & get training from that Institution. It's a romantic & neurotic. It's either monosexual or bi-sexual in nature.

c. Marriage alliance:

Marriage is a Social Institution of the Tribals. They practice so many types of maarriage as

  • Monogamy
  • Polygamy

Monogamy is a marriage where one man can marry only one woman. Polygamy is a type of marriage where one husband or wife can marry more than one. They also practice other types of marriages as

  • Marriage by capture
  • Marriage by exchange
  • marriage by purchase
  • Marriage by mutual choice
  • Marriage by probation
  • Marriage by Instrusion

They have also Divorce system. Its common among the Tribals because marriage is mainly between a young boy with a senior girl.

Life style of Tribals: Every man have some needs. We can classify our needs in 3 categories because of living as

  1. Necessary
  2. Comfort
  3. Luxury

Comfort & Luxury are only for the rich & non tribals. But for the tribals comfort & luxury are seems as dream. They have only necessities.

d. Art & Craft Literature:

Generally Tribals are practice four types of Arts as plastic art, Graphic, art of dancing & oral Literature.They are expert in made the Image of God, heads of Elephants,Tigers made up clay, wood and stones.They paint their walls of their honourable dead persons, ancestral spirit, birds, trees and animals.They made hair pins, ornaments made up Bamboo and stone, coper, straw & graphs. Tribal art is very simple and easy to understand.They perform various types of Dance, Songs and Music. They use the musical Instruments as Droms, Pipe, Flute, Parta and Mrudanga. They practice nonsense rhymes, epics, marriage and hunting songs.

Language: Mainly the Tribals are use two types of Language as Ostrich and Dravidian.

2. Political dimension:

The Tribals formulate their own political organization. They have simple political organization and customary laws.

Simple political organization: Tribals are formulate their own political organization which is very simple in nature. A village leader commands and promote that organization and give punishment or award to the villagers. All give respect to the aged and elder persons of the village.

Customary laws: Generally the Tribals don't obey the constitutionary laws, rules and regulation prescribed by our constitution. They believe in their own customary laws. They govern by their own customs and traditions formulated by their community. They always challenge our system of jurisprudence as a result they suffer a lot.

3. Religious dimension:

Tribals have their own religion dominated by Sarsori, legend and magical power. Tribal religion can found in two forms as 1.Animism 2.Shamanism

Animism: The Tribal people believes that all the natural calamities, diseases and human sufferings are due to the influence of ghostly spirit and super natural powers. Every man is surrounded by that spirits and ancestral powers.

Shamanism: The tribals have the blind believe that all diseases, calamities, deaths and epidemics are caused by the ancestral spirits who live in mountain, river and water falls.

4. Economic dimensions:

Tribal people have simple economic habits. They are the producers and consumers. They earn income by persuing simple economic activities. Labour of the family has been distributed between the members of the family. Mainly they are engaged with farming, hunting, ethnically traders by cost, collectors of forest products and art and crafts.

Social Work for Mankind

"Social work for Mankind" is a new Website which has provided lots of knowledge to the students, who wants to gain more information about the society & who are in Social Sectors . It can provide idea about the Social Work and its other branches as Social Research, Social Legislation, Gender & Gender Bias, Civil Society & N.G.O Management, Tribal Development, Family & child welfare, Community Development and other branches of Society. Hope, the MSW students & who are working in the Social sector will get some more information from this site.