Types of Communicable Diseases
Types of Communicable Diseases:
communicable diseases are communicate from one person to another. There have many types of non communicable diseases we found as:
1. Respiratory Tract Infection(Small Pox, Whooping cough,TB etc.
2. Intestinal Infection(Typhoid, Cholera, Food poisoning etc.)
3. Zoonosis(Rabies, Yellow fever,Plague etc.)
4. Surface Infection(Titanus, STD,AIDS etc.)
Tuberculosis is commonly known as TB effects millions of people every year. It was first discovered by Robert Koch in 1822. It is highly infectious disease that spreads from one person to another directly or indirectly. Every year more than 10 million people get affected by it in India.
Mode of Spread:
TB caused by Bacteria 'Mycobacterium Tuberculosis'.
TB spread by
- Droplet Infection
By inhaling the droplets thrown out into the air by the infected person while coughing, sneezing, talking or spitting
- On contact with sputum or through contaminated food, water or clothes
Part of the body infected:
Tuberculosis bacteria can be infect any part of the body, mainly to the bone, Lymph, gland, brain or lung.
- Loss of appetite
- Gradual weakening of the body
- A typical fever pattern
- Pain in Chest and throat
- Loss of body weight
Technical and medical arrangement:
- Clinic system
- Hospital and Sanitarium
- Admit patient in hospital
- Tuberculosis colonies should arranged near sanitarium or clinic
- Coordination with the health officer, Doctors and dispensaries
Cholera is a highly infectious disease. It is commonly called as "Haiza". Since it spreads through water, it is more common during fairs and after floods. If proper sanitary and hygienic conditions are not maintained, it spread over a large population that is takes an epidemic form.
Cholera is caused by the bacterium 'vibrio cholerae fig'. It is mainly a water borne disease. It is transmitted by flies and spread rapidly where sanitation is poor.
- Loose motion and vomiting
- Patient feels thirsty
- Loss of appetites
Prevention and control:
- Boiled water should be used
- Avoid eating outside during epidemic
- Drain should be kept neat & clean
Rabies is a serious and highly infectious disease which results due to the bite of a rabbit(mad dog) or some other mammals like monkey, cat or rabbit. It is a fatal disease if not treated properly and on time.
Causes and mode of Infection:
Rabies is caused by a rabies virus which is present in the saliva of infected animals. If effects the Brain of the animal.
In human, symptoms of the disease may not be expressed up to 1-3 months after infection. But it may develop anytime between 10 days to 1 year.
- Mental depression
- severe headache
- high fever
- expressive pain in the throat, muscles and chest
- Severe damage to central nervous caused paralysis & painful death
Prevention & control:
- Clean the wound thoroughly with large amount of medicated soap and clean water. Apply antiseptic medicine and leave the wound open
- Consult with the Doctor for anti-rabies vaccine without delay. Use of Minimum 14 anti-rabies vaccine
- Pet dogs should always be vaccinated with anti-rabies vaccine
STD we means the Sexual Transmitted Disease. This is a specific group of communicable disease that are transmitted through unsafe sexual contacts with multiple partners. There are five classical diseases included in STD as:-
- Lympho granuloma venereum
Causes of STD:
- Broker homes causes sexual disharmony
- Urbanization and Industrialization
- Family disturbance
- International travelling
- Weekend in defence service
Control and prevention:
- Aware common people & sex worker