Friday, October 31, 2008

Personality and its Theory

Personality:
Personality we mean out-word appearance, inner self & an interaction between two.Personality is derived from the Greek word, “Personnare” which means to speak through. It’s a mask approach, outer appearance.
Personality is believe as out word appearance by Roman Identity. They identify ones personality through mask.Difference characteristics of an individual as real capability, uniqueness, expression, attitude, dress-up and good personality is because of inner self.Personality is a dynamic state of mind. It’s changeable with the time, situation. Personality is “The some total of individual behaviour”.
Personality is-

  1. The dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho physical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment
  2. The relative consists pattern of behaviour, thinking & feeling distinguish one from another. Personality is unique from person to person.
    One can adjust with the society because of personality.

Nature & Characteristics of personality:
1) Personality reflects individual difference
2) Personality is consists & enduring
3) Personality is a result of heredity, environmental factors & the situation conditions
4) Personality can dynamic (changeable)

1. Personality reflects individual difference:
Personality is different from person to person. The way of thinking, behaviour, feelings and attitude of a person is different that to others.Any ones personality is different & based upon his family, surrounding environment & situation.

2. Personality is consisting & enduring:
Personality of a person is consistent means, it’s constantly stay with a person. Personality of a person is like a shadow of a body. It’s may changeable but constant and enduring. It’s a never ending process.

3. Personality is a result of heredity, environmental factors & the situation conditions:
Some behaviour, attitude of a person comes from his for-father, through genes & chromosomes. So it’s called hereditary. It’s also environmental because when a child grow up she/he can observe & learn many things from her/his family, pioneer group, culture and social institution. According to which a person s personality is build up.

4. Personality is dynamic:
Personality is those dimension, which is change from person to person and time to time and place to place. Either in a Institution or in a home, in a different place we behave differently.

Theories of Personality
1) Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud’s Theory)
2) Type Theory
3) Trait Theory
4) Neo-Freudian Personality Theory
5) Social Learning Theory
6) Self Theory


1. Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud’s Theory):
Psychoanalytic schools of thought is a popular school of thought. It’s headed by Sigmo & Freud. According to the Psychoanalytic theory all the behaviour of a person is due to the instinct (Inner urge) and its instinct is based on Birth (Libido) & death (Thanatos).Libido is called as the source of energy whereas Thanatos is for depression. Those who influence with Livido is always positive in nature.
According to Freud There have 3 Layers of mind:
-Consciousness
-Unconsciousness
-Sub-consciousness
There have also 3 structures of human mind;
-Id
-Ego
-Super ego


2. Type Theory:
Jung’s Psychognomy Theory
Sheldon’s Psychognomy Theory
Jung’s Psychognomy Theory:
Jung’s Theory is different from Freud”s Theory.
He has taken 4 dimensions for the building of personality as-
-Sensing Thinking
-Instituting Thinking
-Sensing Feeling
-Intuiting feeling
Taking this four dimensions he gave 2 dimensions of Personality as-
1.Extrovert
2.Introvert
Extrovert:
Ø Extroverts are those, who are the out-going, optimistic, gregarious
Ø They are sociable
Ø They are reality oriented and practicable
Ø They believe in doing rather than thinking
Ø They like interaction with others

Introvert:
Ø They are much in word directed
Ø Less sociable
Ø They are guided by their own idea & Philosophy
Ø They are subjective oriented
Ø They are calm & quite
Ø They like solitude

Sheldon’s Theory:
According to Sheldon there have 3 types of personality as-
Ø Endomorphos (Characteristics – Jovial, Bulky)
Ø Mesomorphos (Strong, athletic )

Ø Ectomorts (Avoid social contact, remain absent of mind)

3. Trait Theory:
Trait means the quality and characteristics.. All ports theory given-
*Social
*Political
*Religious
R.B.Cattles given two types of trait:
Surface trait (Invisible)
Source Trait (Visible)

4. Neo-Freudian Theory:
Neo-Freudian criticized the Freud’s theory. Waston is great supporter of this theory. According to him the personality of an individual is not for the instinct but only for the behaviour.

5. Social learning Theory:
Social learning means learn from society. It can happen by
-Observation
-Modelling

Social learning process has some phases as
*Attention
*Retention
*Motor production
*Reinforcement process

6. Self theory:
Self esteem is two types-
*How you value yourself

*How other value you
Self theory defines self as 2 types as-
*High self (Prestige conscious & Take more risks)
*Low self (Blame others & discuss about others)

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